Secondary Resource

The Understanding Faith secondary resource is designed for years 7 to 12, covering a wide range of curriculum across Australia.

Explore the Understanding Faith secondary resource content pages below.

Click each section to open or close.
Click on the “Stage” to view the units.
Click on the “Unit” to view the parts.
Click on the “Part” to view the main focus points.

Stage 4
Unit 0 Introduction to the Catholic Faith
  Part 1: Christianity’s Jewish Heritage
 
  • Christians have a Jewish heritage because Jesus was a Jew.
  • God made a covenant with Abraham, the first to come to know the One God, and gave him many descendants.
  • When Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt, God renewed the covenant with them and gave them the Ten Commandments.
  • Jesus summed up the Law and the prophets in the great commandment of love.
  Part 2: Jesus Christ
 
  • God became human in Jesus of Nazareth.
  • Through his teaching and healing ministry, Jesus revealed God’s kingdom.
  • Jesus saved the world by his suffering, death, resurrection and ascension.
  • When the Holy Spirit came upon the apostles at Pentecost, they started preaching about Jesus.
  Part 3: The Nicene Creed
 
  • The Nicene Creed was compiled to provide Christians with a definition of their faith.
  • It defines Christian beliefs about God who is Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
  • The Creed states beliefs in one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church, one baptism, and the resurrection of the dead.
  Part 4: Sacraments
 
  • Seven sacraments are celebrated in the Catholic Church – Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance or Reconciliation, Anointing of the Sick, Matrimony and Holy Orders.
  • The seven sacraments belong to three groups – Sacraments of Initiation, Sacraments of Healing, and Sacraments of Service.
  Part 5: The Mass
 
  • The Mass is the memorial of Jesus’ death and resurrection.
  • At Mass, Catholics listen to the Word of God and celebrate the Eucharist.
  • The Mass is the most important celebration of the Catholic community.
  Part 6: Blessed Virgin Mary
 
  • Mary was present at significant events in Jesus’ life.
  • The Catholic Church has proclaimed four Marian dogmas: Mary is the Mother of God, Perpetual Virginity, the Immaculate Conception and the Assumption.
  • As the Mother of God, Mary is also the Mother of the Church.
  Part 7: In a Catholic Church
 
  • A Catholic church is a sacred place for public worship and private prayer.
  • The sanctuary is the focal point for the celebration of Mass.
  • Most of the interior of a church building is called the nave or body of the church.
  Part 8: Catholic Culture
 
  • The Church’s liturgical cycle is one year long and celebrates the Christian story.
  • Church membership comprises clergy and laity.
  • Catholics use various forms of prayer and devotion.
  • The Bible is used for prayer and study.
  Summary
  Glossary
Unit 1 Belonging to Community
  Part 1: Belonging and Self-Esteem
 
  • For teenagers, the most important areas for growth relate to belonging and self-esteem.
  • Our sense of belonging and self-esteem finds its ultimate source in God, who created us in God’s own image and likeness.
  Part 2: I Belong to God
 
  • Created in the image and likeness of God, all human beings share God’s life and are of infinite worth.
  • God gave us life and continues to sustain us; through Christ, we become temples of the Holy Spirit.
  • Each person has a unique combination of personal characteristics, likes and dislikes, interests, values, strengths and weaknesses.
  • God’s vision for each person is a future full of hope and opportunities to grow to his or her fullest potential.
  Part 3: I Belong to My Family
 
  • We experience God’s love first-hand in our family through the love our parents have for us.
  • Our family of origin plays a very important part in defining our self-identity, and how we give expression to that identity.
  • Family prayer plays an important role in uniting family members through worship and sharing a common Catholic faith.
  Part 4: I Belong to a Community of Friends
 
  • From the very beginning, God created human beings with the need for relationship.
  • We experience God’s presence and love in our lives through the different relationships we establish and nurture throughout the journey of life.
  • Jesus is the perfect model of the Christian values that form the foundation of true friendship.
  Part 5: I Belong to a School Community
 
  • Culture is an expression of what people believe in as a human community, and is made visible through symbols, words and behaviours.
  • Catholic schools aim to promote a culture based on gospel values and their particular role in the Church’s mission, to encourage young people to accept who they are and to grow to their full potential.
  • The Catholic school gives witness to its tradition through symbols, words and behaviours.
  Part 6: I Belong to a Parish Community
 
  • Our spiritual journey is marked by certain milestones, which we pass as our relationship with God grows and develops.
  • Our parish community plays a central role in preparing us for and helping us to pass these milestones.
  • Our faith is nurtured in the parish community through worship, teaching, witness and service.
  Part 7: I Belong to the Community of the Church
 
  • The pope is the successor of St Peter, the first pope.
  • Bishops are successors of the apostles, and they unite the faithful throughout the world to the bishop of Rome, the pope, through a single, common shared faith.
  • The work of the pope and bishops is supported by the college of bishops, college of cardinals and bishops’ conferences.
  • Australia has the Australian Catholic Bishops Conference which meets regularly to look after the needs of the Australian church.
  Summary
  Glossary
Unit 2 Jesus – Divine and Human
  Part 1: History and Faith
 
  • Historical evidence confirms without doubt that as a human being Jesus lived in Palestine just over 2000 years ago.
  • Christians know that Jesus is God through faith in Jesus and the God he reveals.
  • Throughout salvation history, God prepared the Jewish people for the coming of Jesus.
  Part 2: The Incarnation
 
  • When Jesus Christ the Son of God was born, he accepted all the limitations and restrictions of being human in order to save us.
  Part 3: Jesus Grows Up
 
  • Jesus experienced life as an ordinary Jewish boy and young man of his time.
  Part 4: Jesus Begins His Ministry
 
  • Jesus’ ministry began with his baptism by John in the Jordan River.
  • Jesus chose twelve men to be with him and to participate in his ministry.
  Part 5: Jesus’ Ministry of Teaching and Healing
 
  • Jesus possessed all the qualities of a great teacher because he was fully human.
  • Jesus used parables to teach his followers about the kingdom of God.
  • Jesus’ many great works of healing revealed that the kingdom was present in him and confirmed that he was the Son of God.
  Part 6: Jesus – A Man of Prayer
 
  • Jesus is the perfect prayer model because of the depth of his intimacy with God the Father.
  • When Jesus taught his followers how to pray, he taught them the Our Father.
  • Jesus revealed his humanity and divinity through his personal life of prayer.
  Part 7: Jesus – Crisis and Death
 
  • Being human, Jesus was afraid of the pain and suffering he was about to undergo.
  • Because he was God, Jesus knew he was going to be betrayed, arrested and crucified.
  • Jesus was fearful when travelling to Jerusalem for the Feast of the Passover, because he knew the opposition he would find there.
  • Jesus’ violent and painful death was the centrepiece of God’s loving plan to save all people.
  • When Jesus shared his final meal with the apostles he put in place the greatest sacrament of God’s love for all people, the Eucharist.
  Part 8: Jesus Rises from the Dead
 
  • The empty tomb was a sign from God to help the disciples understand that Jesus had risen from the dead to new life.
  • Jesus’ risen body was ‘the same body that had been tortured and crucified’ and recognisable as Jesus, but it was different because it was no longer limited by space and time.
  • Jesus finalised God’s plan of salvation through his ascension into heaven.
  Part 9: The Verdict – Is Jesus Really God?
 
  • Christians know that Jesus was a man and through faith, believe that Jesus is God.
  Summary
  Glossary
Unit 3 Celebrating the Liturgical Cycle
  Part 1: The Gregorian Calendar
 
  • Historical problems with the development of the calendar were resolved once and for all by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582.
  • Today, the Gregorian calendar is in use throughout the Western world.
  Part 2: Overview of the Liturgical Year
 
  • The Church’s calendar or liturgical year, is made up of the weekly, temporal and sanctoral cycles, which work together.
  • The Eucharist is the cornerstone of the liturgical year.
 Part 3: The Weekly Cycle
 
  • The Church has set Sunday aside for going to Mass.
  • By going to Mass each Sunday Catholics participate in the Church’s liturgical year; they celebrate and learn more about Jesus’ life and the important occasions in the life of the Church.
  Part 4: The Seasons of the Church’s Year
 
  • The liturgical seasons focus on different aspects of Jesus’ life and God’s activities.
  • Advent begins the liturgical year, followed by Christmas and a short period of Ordinary Time.
  • Lent follows in preparation for Easter, the central liturgical season in the Church’s year.
  • After Pentecost there is a long period of Ordinary Time until the feast of Christ the King, which ends the liturgical year.
  Part 5: The Church’s Heroes – The Sanctoral Cycle
 
  • The sanctoral cycle is made of important feasts in honour of Mary and the saints.
  Part 6: The Mass – A Sacred Ritual
 
  • In commanding the apostles to do this in memory of him, Jesus instituted the Eucharist as a sacred ritual.
  • The church is a sacred space and Jesus is present in the Blessed Sacrament in the tabernacle.
  • Objects used in the Mass are not holy in themselves, but they are regarded as sacred because they are necessary for the proper celebration of the Mass.
  Part 7: Preparing for Mass
 
  • Preparation for Mass through prayer and reflection is important for both the celebrant and the people.
  • The liturgy should be well organised, prayerful and unified.
  Part 8: The Structure of the Mass
 
  • The Mass is a sacred ritual which follows the same pattern the world over.
  • In the Introductory Rite of the Mass we gather together as a praying community.
  • In the Liturgy of the Word we listen and respond to God’s Word in the Scriptures.
  • In the Liturgy of the Eucharist the gifts of bread and wine become Christ’s body and blood which we share in a sacred meal.
  • At the Concluding Rite of the Mass we are blessed and sent to proclaim what God has done for us.
  Part 9: The History of the Mass
 
  • At the Last Supper, Jesus replaced the Passover with the sacrifice of the Eucharist and gave the apostles the power to celebrate the Eucharist.
  • The manner in which different early Christian groups celebrated Mass was remarkably similar and a common structure for the Mass was developed in the first century.
  • The central meaning of Mass and its importance for Christians have always remained unchanged.
  Part 10: The Mass Today
 
  • Changes brought about by the Second Vatican Council restored the celebration of the Mass to the intentions of the apostles.
  • While the central meaning of Mass has not changed, as a result of the Second Vatican Council its emphasis shifted towards celebrating Jesus’ presence among the community of believers.
  • The new translation of the Roman Missal was implemented at the beginning of Advent 2011.
  Summary
  Glossary
Unit 4 Early Christianity
  Part 1: The Gift of the Holy Spirit
 
  • God gave the Christian community the gift of the Holy Spirit on the first Christian Pentecost.
  • At Pentecost the apostles were filled with courage and strength to share the Good News of salvation with the whole world.
 Part 2: Saint Peter and Saint Paul
 
  • Saint Peter and Saint Paul were instrumental in shaping the identity of the early Church firmly founding the Church on Jesus’ teachings and his way of doing things.
  Part 3: The Nations Receive the Good News
 
  • As a result of the missionary journeys of Paul and the apostles, and their helpers, Christianity had penetrated into Syria, Asia Minor, Greece and Rome by 65 CE.
  Part 4: Church – Identity and Membership
 
  • There are two requirements for membership to the Church: repentance followed by baptism in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins.
  • Membership to the Church does not require circumcision, and Christians do not have to adhere to the complete Jewish Law.
  Part 5: Organisation of Church Life
 
  • By the middle of the second century, the Church had developed a structure made up of ordained bishops, presbyters and deacons.
  • The Bishop of Rome, or pope, became Peter’s successor; the pope is the unifying force in the Church.
  • The Early Church celebrated Baptism, Eucharist and the forgiveness of sins.
  Part 6: The Christian Story is Written
 
  • The New Testament canon is a list of all the New Testament writings the Church regards as inspired by God.
  Part 7: The Church Responds to Persecutions
 
  • The Romans persecuted the Christians because they saw them as dangerous to the welfare and stability of the Empire.
  • The lifestyle, beliefs and moral standards of the Christians were completely contrary to those of the Romans.
  • The persecutions strengthened the faith of the Christians, but forced the Church underground.
  • The Christians buried their dead in the catacombs to await their resurrection.
  Part 8: Martyrs
 
  • The martyrs were held in great esteem by the early Christians because they endured great pain as they suffered and died for the name of Jesus.
  Part 9: Creeds and Councils
 
  • Statements of essential beliefs in the Church are called creeds.
  • The Nicene Creed was written to correct heresy.
  Part 10: Emergence of Religious Communities
 
  • Some Christians retreated to the desert and lived as hermits in order to live strict Christian lives when many Christians began to become less to devoted to their faith and to Christian practices.
  • As monks began to live more formalised lives in monasteries, Basil wrote a monastic rule which was to become the foundation of religious life.
  • Monasticism began in the Eastern part of the Empire, but St Patrick and St Brigid brought monasticism to Ireland.
  Part 11: The Church Responds to the Barbarian Invasions
 
  • When the western part of the Empire was invaded by barbarians, strong leadership was required to sort out the many civil and religious issues of the time.
  • Pope Gregory the Great provided strong leadership by helping those in need, fighting heresies, uniting the Church and revitalising the liturgy in Church.
  • St Benedict established many monasteries, where monks all lived together in the one building, and prayed, worked and shared meals together.
  Part 12: Growth of Islam
 
  • When Islam spread, Christians and Muslims lived peacefully together, although Christians did not have the same rights as Muslims.
  • Islam and Christianity share some beliefs and practices, but there are important differences between the two religions.
  • Today the Church celebrates the affirms which Islam has in common with Christianity.
  Summary
  Glossary
Unit 5 Christian Stewardship
  Part 1: Historical Development of Creation Stories
 
  • There is mystery and wonder in creation.
  • There are various theories about the origins of life.
  Part 2: God as Creator
 
  • Various civilisations developed their own accounts of creation, such as Australian Aboriginal people.
  • The two Genesis creation stories were written at different points in time, and addressed different Jewish concerns.
  • God is involved in the continuing work of creation.
  Part 3: Creation: In Search of the Truth
 
  • Science and the Church use different tools in search of truth, and they reveal different truths.
  • Science attempts to explain how the universe came into being.
  • The Church teaches the fundamental truths of God’s relationship with creation.
  Part 4: Sin Enters the World
 
  • The ability to make decisions sets human beings apart from other animals.
  • Because of the sin of Adam and Eve, human beings are born with the capacity to sin.
  • Throughout the history of salvation, God restored well-being and offered hope to all people.
  Part 5: Humanity Misuses God’s Creation
 
  • Effects of human sinfulness have extended to all aspects of God’s creation.
  • Through the sin of exploitation, humanity has misused God’s creation to such an extent that renewable resources are running out, and the environment has been damaged almost to the point of no-return.
  • God has given us the knowledge, skills and resources needed to restore harmony between humanity and creation.
  Part 6: Redeemer of Creation
 
  • God’s plan to restore harmony and order began when God formed a covenant with Abraham and Sarah.
  • Through the redemptive action of Jesus, God offers salvation to all.
  • People are called to act as stewards of creation in the way God intended by living according to the values of the Beatitudes.
  Part 7: Call to Christian Stewardship
 
  • Human beings are responsible for the care of the natural world.
  • People are called to live as a community of persons in which every individual is afforded dignity and respect.
  • Male and female are equal partners and share an equal, albeit different, role in creation.
  Part 8: Models of Christian Stewardship
 
  • Many ordinary Australians have taken up the challenge of responsible stewardship.
  • St Francis of Assisi is remembered for his deep Christian love of creation.
  • Mother Teresa of Calcutta was called to minister to the poorest of the poor in the slums of Calcutta, India.
  Part 9: Building God’s Kingdom
 
  • God has created and gifted each person for the sake of the kingdom.
  • Ordinary people are called to work for the kingdom.
  • We contribute to the building of the kingdom at home, at school and within our local community.
  Part 10: Celebrating God’s Creative Power
 
  • The psalms show God as the creator who rules over and delights in all creation.
  • People continue to celebrate the awe and wonder of God’s creation through art, music and song.
  Summary
  Glossary
Unit 6 In Search of Australian Identity – A Catholic Perspective
  Part 1: Beginnings of Australia’s Catholic Church
 
  • Crime and punishment in eighteenth-century Britain led to the establishment of a penal colony in New South Wales.
  • It is estimated that there would have been about 300 Catholic convicts among the 1,350 ‘First Fleeters’.
  • In the new colony, church services, compulsory for all convicts, were conducted by the Church of England.
  Part 2: Early Priests
 
  • The first priests to come to Australia were Fathers James Dixon, James Harold and Peter O’Neill who were transported as convicts.
  • The first public Mass in Australia was celebrated by Fr James Dixon on 15 May 1803.
  • Fr Jeremiah O’Flynn’s short ministry helped to publicise that priests were really wanted by colonial Catholics and it influenced the British Government in allowing the first official Roman Catholic priests.
  Part 3: Beginnings of the Official Catholic Church
 
  • Australia’s Catholic Church officially began with the arrival of two chaplains, Fathers John Therry and Philip Conolly, both appointed by the British Government.
  • Between 1820 and 1833 Australian Catholicism was dominated by Father Therry who ‘laid its foundations’.
  • In 1833, Father William Ullathorne was appointed the first Vicar-General of New South Wales and in 1834 Father John Bede Polding was appointed the first Catholic Bishop of Australia.
  Part 4: An Australia-Wide Church
 
  • During the nineteenth century, growing numbers of free settlers and emancipists began to change the nature of the Australian colonies so that they were longer simply penal settlements.
  • Archbishop Bede Polding was responsible, with the assistance of Irish missionary priests, religious and Catholic lay people, for establishing an Australia-wide church.
  • Pioneering Catholic missionaries displayed determination and enthusiasm, dedication to the people and strong faith.
  Part 5: Catholic Schools
 
  • Australia’s first schools were run by the Church of England and were government funded.
  • Catholic bishops set up an independent education system staffed by members of Irish and European religious orders.
  • Catholics had to maintain and develop their own schools by their own efforts and sacrifices.
  Part 6: Towards an Australian Catholicism
 
  • Australian Catholicism in the nineteenth century was predominantly Irish in character.
  • In 1884, with the arrival in Australia of Irish Bishop, later Cardinal Patrick Francis Moran, the character of Australian Catholicism began to change.
  • Irish Archbishop Daniel Mannix arrived in Melbourne in 1913 and worked towards equality for Catholics, as well as being an advocate for social justice, particularly for the working class.
  Part 7: A Time of Change
 
  • The flood of immigrants into Australia after the Second World War (1939-45) changed the face of Australian Catholicism.
  • Catholic migrants brought their own languages, cultures and religious traditions with them and added to the diversity of Catholic expression in Australia.
  • The Second Vatican Council changed the Church and brought it into the modern world.
  Part 8: Twenty-First Century Catholicism
 
  • Changes in Australian society are reflected in the Australian Catholic Church.
  • Australian Catholics contribute significantly to Australian society.
  • Australia’s Catholic Church would be unrecognisable to the Catholic convicts banished from Britain in 1788 to the penal settlement at Botany Bay.
  Part 9: The Second Story – Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians
 
  • At the time of first European settlement in 1788, traditional Aboriginal spirituality governed every aspect of Aboriginal life, as it still does today.
  • For Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the first two hundred years after European settlement were characterised by dispossession of land, and loss of spirituality and identity.
  • As Australian Catholics, it is important to acknowledge and appreciate this second story in our history as it is part of our own story.
  Part 10: Totems, Rituals and Ceremonies
 
  • Aboriginal people are so closely connected to the land and all it sustains, that without it they lose their identity and sense of purpose.
  • A totem links an Aboriginal person to his or her ancestor spirit and others of the same gender and social groupings, and speaks of a person’s relationship with the land and everything it sustains.
  • Aboriginal rituals are associated with birth, coming of age, death and increase.
  Part 11: Towards Reconciliation
 
  • Missionary efforts in Aboriginal communities were based on charity, but were not always a positive experience.
  • Pope John Paul II’s address at Alice Springs demonstrated the Church’s appreciation of Aboriginal spirituality and the work of the Spirit in Aboriginal people’s relationship with creation and the land in particular.
  • Aboriginal connection with country needs to be respected and as Catholic Christians, we have an active role in the on-going process of reconciliation.
  Summary
  Glossary
Unit 7 Knowing God Through Prayer
  Part 1: Prayer and Praying
 
  • Prayer is a trusting and intimate relationship with God where our hearts become open to God’s presence, and modelled on the life of Jesus of Nazareth.
  • The Blessed Virgin Mary and the angels and saints continually pray to God for us.
  • Prayer needs to be characterised by devoutness, attentiveness, confidence and perseverance.
  Part 2: Nature of Prayer
 
  • Prayer and praying are multidimensional.
  • Five basic forms of prayer are demonstrated in the Christian Scriptures, i.e. Old and New Testaments.
  • The Holy Spirit teaches us to pray and renews us.
  Part 3: ‘Our Father’ – Coming of the Kingdom
 
  • The Lord’s Prayer captures what the gospels are all about – the coming of God’s kingdom here on earth as it is in heaven.
  • The first part of the Lord’s Prayer is essentially a prayer of praise and thanksgiving.
  • The second part of the Lord’s Prayer consists of seven phrases that are at once petitions and intercessions.
 Part 4: Individual and Communal Prayer
 
  • Prayer is personal when prayed individually, and communal and public when prayed with others.
  • Individual and communal prayer includes spontaneous, traditional and contemporary prayers.
  • Devotional prayer is formal prayer that focuses on aspects of Jesus, Mary and the saints.
 Part 5: Mental Prayer, Meditation and Contemplation
 
  • In the Church’s tradition, mental prayer, meditation and contemplation are similar in that they each express the sentiments of the person who prays, rather than drawing on prayer formulas.
  • Mental prayer is a process involving organised steps.
  • Three methods of mental prayer are from the Benedictine, Ignatian and Dominican traditions.
 Part 6: Liturgical Prayer
 
  • Liturgy is the Church’s public work and is formal and communal.
  • The priestly dimension of the Church’s liturgy includes, but is not limited to:
    • the celebration of the Sacrament of the Eucharist – the Mass
    • the other sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, Reconciliation, Matrimony, Holy Orders and the Anointing of the Sick
    • Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament
    • feast days and solemnities
    • the Liturgy of the Hours.
  • The Liturgy of the Hours is a public and common prayer of the people of God which makes holy each hour of the day.
 Part 7: Approaching Prayer
 
  • In approaching prayer we need to consider time for prayer, a place for prayer, its setting, our posture, and appropriate music, hymns and silence.
  • By setting a time and place for prayer we make space in our lives to pray.
  • The setting for prayer helps us to come into God’s presence.
  • Prayer postures, music, singing and silence help us to pray because they involve our minds, hearts and bodies.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 8Discovering God’s Presence
 Part 1: God is Visible
 
  • The world is full of signs of God’s presence.
  • God, who is Father, Son and Holy Spirit, has revealed the divine presence through the Scriptures, Jesus Christ and the Church.
 Part 2: God is Present Through Signs
 
  • Signs convey a specific message to people who need to know.
  • When we are open to signs of God’s presence, we hear God speaking to us through all creation, and in particular through the ordinary events of our lives.
 Part 3: God is Present Through Scripture
 
  • The Scriptures are the inspired word of God, presenting God’s word in human words.
  • God’s revelation in the Scriptures follows the same pattern as a growing friendship in which human beings learn that God is invisible and powerful, next that God is one, and that God cares about people, and finally they learn the full nature of God as a Trinity of Persons.
  • To find God in the Scriptures we need to spend time with them to become aware of the signs they give about God.
 Part 4: God is Present Through Jesus Christ
 
  • Jesus is the visible sign of the invisible God.
  • God is revealed in the person, teachings and activities of Jesus.
  • Jesus himself is a sign of God’s infinite and unconditional love and mercy.
 Part 5: God is Present Through the Church
 
  • The Church is the sacrament of Christ, because Jesus uses the Church as a means of communicating his saving power, love, mercy and forgiveness in a way that human beings can understand.
  • The Church’s mission is to continue the work begun by Jesus of bringing about God’s kingdom on earth.
  • Christians take part in the Church’s mission by making Christ present in a real and personal way.
 Part 6: Celebrating God’s Presence Through Symbol, Ritual and Sacrament
 
  • The Church uses sacred symbols to reveal spiritual realities.
  • A sacrament is a symbolic ritual that makes God’s saving love for us in Christ, present through the Holy Spirit in the Church.
  • The work of Jesus takes place through the sacramental action of the priest bestowing the sacrament.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 9 Call to Belong
 Part 1: Nature of Initiation Rites
 
  • A rite of initiation is a formal ceremony to mark a person’s movement into a new way of being and living in a community.
  • Rites of initiation have an organised structure and include rituals and symbols.
  • Rites of initiation may be divided into five parts – preparation, build-up, transformation, wind-down and return to the ordinary.
  • Rites of initiation are the means by which the community preserves its identity and structure.
 Part 2: Social and Aboriginal Rites of Initiation
 
  • Some social events mark new stages in a person’s life involving rights, privileges and responsibilities, and reflect the structure of initiation rites.
  • Aboriginal rites of initiation are performed to mark and celebrate the transition of adolescent boys and girls to the status of adult members of the community.
 Part 3: Rites of Initiation in Four Religious Traditions
 
  • The Jewish Brit Milah marks the male baby’s entry into God’s covenant with Abraham, and his membership into the family of God’s Chosen People.
  • The Bar Mitzvah and Bat Mitzvah ceremonies mark the transition of Jewish boys and girls from childhood to adulthood.
  • The Aqiqah anchors the baby to the Islamic belief system, as well as connecting the child to the Islamic community.
  • Buddhist ordination results in the acceptance of the monk or nun into the community of monks or nuns.
  • The Rite of the Sacred Thread marks the boy’s transition from childhood to adulthood, as well as his rebirth as a high caste Hindu.
 Part 4: Overview of Sacraments of Christian Initiation
 
  • Baptism, Confirmation and Eucharist are known as the Sacraments of Christian Initiation.
  • The form and structure of the Sacraments of Christian Initiation do not normally vary, unless extraordinary circumstances dictate otherwise.
  • Baptism, Confirmation and Eucharist were recognised at the time of the apostles, and their liturgical celebration has developed over the centuries.
 Part 5: Sacrament of Baptism
 
  • The Sacrament of Baptism is the first Sacrament of Christian Initiation and has its own identifying symbols and rituals.
  • Two principal effects of Baptism are purification from sin and new birth in the Spirit.
  • The Sacrament of Baptism can be compared and contrasted with the Jewish Brit Milah and Islamic Aqiqah ceremonies.
 Part 6: Sacrament of Confirmation
 
  • The Sacrament of Confirmation seals the gift of the Holy Spirit, first poured out in Baptism, and has its own identifying symbols and rituals.
  • Through the gifts of the Holy Spirit, the newly confirmed receives the strength to bear witness to the faith and live according to Jesus’ teachings.
  • The Sacrament of Confirmation can be compared and contrasted with the Jewish Bar Mitzvah and Bat Mitzvah, the Buddhist ordination and the Hindu Rite of the Sacred Thread.
 Part 7: Sacrament of the Eucharist
 
  • First Eucharist completes Christian initiation and has its own identifying symbols and rituals.
  • The principal effect of receiving the Eucharist is an intimate spiritual union with Jesus.
  • Repeated reception of the Eucharist sustains and nourishes Catholic Christians throughout their lives of witness and service.
  • There is no parallel with the Sacrament of the Eucharist in initiation rites of other traditions.
 Part 8: Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults
 
  • The Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults is a programme, marked by different stages and rituals, that brings unbaptised young people and adults into the Catholic Church.
  • The Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults climaxes with the conferring of the Sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation and Eucharist in the one celebration at the Easter Vigil Mass.
  • The essential rituals and symbols associated with each Sacrament of Christian Initiation at the Easter Vigil Mass are exactly the same as when they are conferred in separate celebrations.
 Summary
 Glossary
Stage 4 – 5
Unit 10 Our Christian Identity
 Part 1: The Search for Who We Are
 
  • Jesus wanted his disciples to know and understand that he was the Messiah and the suffering servant.
  • We continue to discover more about ourselves throughout our lifetime.
  • Our identity comes from our family, our nationality and where we live.
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people receive their identity from the land.
 Part 2: Our Spiritual Identity
 
  • Each of us possesses the dignity of a person created in the image of God.
  • God knows us and loves us as we are.
 Part 3: Love your Neighbour as Yourself
 
  • All people have basic human needs for survival.
  • All people have spiritual and emotional needs that allow them to reach their potential.
  • A person is more than his or her physical appearance.
  • Jesus shows the Way to love God, ourselves and our neighbour.
 Part 4: The Sacred Journey of Life
 
  • Life is a journey of discovery.
  • People set out on physical journeys or pilgrimages.
  • The sacred journey is towards true happiness with Christ.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 11Journeys Shared
 Part 1: Travelling Through Time and Place
 
  • People travel on a variety of journeys throughout their lifetime.
  • Journeys have similar characteristics.
  • Sharing stories along the way is an important way of sharing life’s experiences.
 Part 2: Australian Stories Along the Way
 
  • Dreaming stories of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people tell of their journey through time and provide their oral history.
  • The Aboriginal story changed after white settlement.
  • The Australian story has continued to change with exploration, immigration and people seeking asylum.
 Part 3: Travel Stories from the Old Testament
 
  • The nomadic people Abram and Sarai, were chosen by God to leave their homeland and travel to the Promised Land of Canaan.
  • Joseph, who was sold into slavery in Egypt, became the governor of that country.
  • Jacob and his entire household migrated to Egypt, where, over time, they grew numerous.
  • Moses’ story began in Egypt where he was called by God to lead the Hebrew people back to the Promised Land.
  • The Israelites’ long journey began with the Exodus from Egypt and continued for forty years in the desert land of Sinai.
 Part 4: Travel Stories from the New Testament
 
  • Jesus’ life began with a journey to Bethlehem where he was born.
  • As a young child, Jesus spent time in Egypt and then grew up in Nazareth in Galilee.
  • From Galilee, Jesus began his public ministry and travelled for three years, teaching and healing people.
  • Jesus’ journey to Jerusalem was to his death on the cross for the love of his Father and ‘for the life of the world’.
 Part 5: Letters of a New Testament Pilgrim
 
  • When Saul was travelling to Damascus, he experienced the risen Jesus.
  • Paul travelled through the countries around the Mediterranean Sea, establishing Christian communities, especially among the gentiles.
  • Paul wrote letters to instruct and encourage the new Christian communities – his Letter to the Church at Colossae is one of them.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 12Do This in Memory of Me
 Part 1: What is the Eucharist?
 
  • The Eucharist is the sacramental sacrifice, which perpetuates the sacrifice of the cross.
  • The Eucharist is the memorial of the death and resurrection of Christ.
  • The Eucharist is the Sacred Meal in which Christ is received. In the Eucharist, the new and eternal covenant, established by the sacrifice of Christ, is renewed.
 Part 2: Christ’s Presence in the Eucharist
 
  • Catholics usually celebrate the memorial sacrifice of Christ’s death and resurrection within the context of a liturgical celebration, called Mass.
  • Sometimes people may receive the sacrament of the Eucharist outside the context of Mass.
  • Christ is present in the people who gather in his name to celebrate Mass, in the Word of God proclaimed during Mass, in the presiding celebrant, and in the elements of bread and wine.
  • We show reverence towards Christ by recognising and responding to the four ways in which Christ is present.
  • Worship of the Eucharist outside the sacrifice of the Mass highlights the fundamental mystery of the Eucharist, Christ’s true presence, body and blood, in the Blessed Sacrament.
 Part 3: The Gospel Traditions of the Eucharist
 
  • The synoptic gospels of Mark and Matthew recount the tradition of the celebration of the Eucharist at the Last Supper.
  • The Gospel of John presents the Eucharist as a farewell meal of remembrance of Jesus’ service to his disciples, symbolised by the washing of the feet.
  • The Gospel of Luke combines the traditions of a sacrificial meal and a farewell meal of remembrance, and adds a third element of a memorial command.
  • In the Last Supper, Jesus announced humanity’s new covenant, which Jesus sealed with his blood.
  • The promise of Jesus to remain with his Church is made real in both the sacramental memorial and the fulfilment of the command to love as Jesus loved.
  • Catholics believe in the real presence of Jesus Christ in the Eucharist, because the Church affirms the literal meaning of Christ’s words at the Last Supper.
 Part 4: Eucharist as Sacrament
 
  • The Eucharist is a sacrament unlike any of the other sacraments; it is a sacrament of the Church.
  • The institution of the Eucharist is of decisive importance for the foundation of the Church, and for understanding Jesus as the mediator of salvation.
  • All the other sacraments find their ultimate meaning in the Eucharist and are directed towards the Eucharist, because in this sacrament we receive the real Body and Blood of Christ.
  • We, the Body of Christ, are a new creation, because we have been reconciled and reunited with God.
 Part 5: The Meal of Pilgrims
 
  • Christians, by virtue of their baptism, are also pilgrims on a pilgrimage to eternal life with God.
  • Catholic pilgrims journey towards the ultimate goal, union with God, knowing that God is with them through the Eucharist.
  • Holy Communion is a festive meal from which Catholic pilgrims receive strength and joy on the journey through life, so that they may arrive home to the banquet of eternal life.
 Part 6: Memorial and Thanksgiving
 
  • A foundational event is one in which God enters human history to change its course.
  • During the Jewish Passover Meal, the liberation from slavery and the giving of the covenant are commemorated and celebrated with thanksgiving.
  • Christians share in the event of the Last Supper by keeping memory and thanking God for Jesus our Saviour, who is God’s gift to humankind.
  • The saving deeds of Christ are remembered through many images.
  • Jesus left to the Church a sacrifice of his Body and Blood, by which the cross would be re-presented, its memory perpetuated, and its power applied to the forgiveness of sins.
  • There are three important aspects of the Eucharist – the sacrificial memorial of Christ and his Body, thanksgiving and praise to the Father, and the presence of Christ by the power of his Word and of his Spirit.
  • Christians carry out Christ’s command to, ‘Do this in memory of me’ on Sundays in parish churches throughout the world, when they gather as communities of faith.
 Part 7: The Eucharist Prayer
 
  • In the Roman Catholic Church there are four variations of the Eucharist Prayers on Sundays. They all share the same basic themes.
  • The Eucharistic Prayer takes the form through which Christ and the Passion of Christ are sacramentally re-presented to the community.
  • The Eucharistic Prayer is the people’s prayer, proclaimed by the priest, who presides on their behalf.
  • The Eucharistic Prayers have emerged from various traditions.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 13Medieval Christianity
 Part 1: A Question of Authority
 
  • The history of Christianity in Medieval Europe is closely connected to the political, cultural and social history of Europe.
  • Christianity grew to be the religion of Europe, dominating every aspect of life and society, from the period after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, to the beginning of the Renaissance period, around the 1450s.
  • The position and influence of the pope evolved to be more politically and socially powerful. The relationships between the popes and the kings of Europe, especially with the kings of the Franks (modern day France) strengthened, increasing the spread Christianity throughout Europe.
  • The question of authority and power became complex, made more so by many factors occurring in Europe and other parts of the world at the time.
 Part 2: The Great Eastern Schism
 
  • Religious division and differences of opinions have always been part of society, even during Jesus’ time.
  • During medieval times, churches in the East and the West shared the same faith and continue to do so to this day. However, over many centuries a split or schism developed between the Latin or Western Church and the Eastern or Greek speaking Church. This was the first major break in Christianity, known as the Great Eastern Schism.
  • The factors that contributed to the schism were complex and developed gradually over centuries, fuelled by the development of and changes in culture, language, society and politics.
  • In recent decades, leaders of Eastern and Western churches have made movements towards reconciliation, but the road to full reconciliation remains a challenge, given the many deep-seated differences that have existed for centuries.
 Part 3: Our Monastic Tradition
 
  • The monastic life has its roots in ancient religious practices where people sought solitude to pray and grow in their relationship with God.
  • In the Middle Ages the monastic life developed into a particular form with specific rules and guidelines for those who sought to live monastic lives.
  • The monasteries of Europe in the Middle Ages allowed for the preservation and development of education and the arts through their focus on writing and copying manuscripts, based on classical works and the scriptures.
  • The monastic tradition is important for the continuing tradition of faith passed on to us in written works and artistic works and a tradition of prayer, reflection and solitude.
 Part 4: Pilgrimages – Journeys of Faith and Discovery
 
  • The idea of going on a pilgrimage is not new, but has existed for centuries.
  • Pilgrimages were eagerly embraced by the majority of medieval people from all walks of life, irrespective of their age or wealth.
  • A pilgrimage was regarded as a retreat from worldly concerns and a journey inwards, which allowed pilgrims an opportunity to discover more about their religion and their relationship with God.
 Part 5: A Call to War and the Road to Peace
 
  • The Crusades were religious wars called by the popes, and other religious and political leaders to recover Jerusalem or defend Christian territory in Palestine, lost or perceived as being threatened by Islamic conquerors.
  • No religious war is ever justified, whether they are Christian, Islamic or Jewish or any other religious tradition.
  • The path to reconciliation and peace begins with admission of guilt, seeking forgiveness and a willingness to forgive.
 Part 6: Marian Devotions
 
  • In the East and the West, the Church honours Mary as Theotokos.
  • Devotion to Mary has a long history dating from the early Church, and took on specific characteristics as it developed both in the Eastern and Western Churches during medieval times.
  • Marian devotions became very important in the Middle Ages – a period that saw the development of the Hail Mary and the Rosary.
 Part 7: An Age of Progress
 
  • Christianity, the dominant religion of Europe in the Middle Ages, made a significant contribution to the advancement of society despite interruptions from wars, conquests and other upheavals.
  • Great Gothic cathedrals expressed faith and creativity, while the growth of universities advanced learning.
  • Returning crusaders and pilgrims brought new skills and knowledge that enriched the lives of Europeans.
 Part 8: Papal Authority and Reform
 
  • The pope is the successor of St Peter, to whom Jesus gave the authority to lead and guide the Church.
  • Some popes in the Middle Ages believed their spiritual authority was linked to worldly power, often leading to abuse and corruption.
  • The rise of new religious orders, and new ways of living the Christian life, challenged the Church to renewal.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 14God’s Heroes and Heroines
 Part 1: People of Inspiration and Hope
 
  • Heroes and heroines inspire us because they demonstrate admirable qualities of character that make life happy, safe and worthwhile.
  • Essential qualities of the human spirit, called virtues, help us all to live as Christians.
  • As a nation, Australia develops an heroic spirit in times of hardship and natural disasters.
  • Those in our society, who work with disadvantaged young people, are regarded as heroic.
 Part 2: Followers of Christ
 
  • Jesus showed us how to live our lives and build a just society that works towards the reign of God.
  • Through the action of the Holy Spirit, human and theological virtues, assist people to live good lives and lead them to God.
  • Sister Irene McCormack and Father Charlie Burrows are heroic Christians.
 Part 3: Prophetic People of God
 
  • The Old Testament prophets spoke on behalf of God about injustice, cruelty and oppression of the poor, and challenged the Chosen People to return to God.
  • Isaiah was a prophet of faith and pleaded for trust in God, not in military alliance.
  • Jeremiah’s message was that people needed to make a new covenant of the heart with God and not depend on outward ritual.
  • Amos condemned corrupt city life, while Micah spoke of God’s punishment, but also of hope.
 Part 4: Heroic Women in Scripture
 
  • Despite the social conventions and limitations placed on women, some demonstrated leadership in extraordinary ways and achieved a place in history.
  • The stories of Sarah, Miriam, Deborah and Jael, Ruth, Judith and Esther illustrate trust in God, intelligence and courage.
  • In contrast to the society of first century Palestine, Jesus promoted the dignity of women.
 Part 5: Mary’s Faithful Discipleship
 
  • Information about Mary comes from the gospels, as well as the history, geography and culture of her time.
  • We honour Mary as the Mother of God and follow her example as the faithful disciple who consistently gave active and responsible consent to the will of God.
  • Mary was a woman of history who experienced personal suffering, loss and hardship, and while sometimes she did not fully understand, she always trusted God.
 Part 6: People of Faith and Virtue
 
  • The term, ‘saints’, covers a wide range of meanings, and has undergone changes throughout history.
  • Saints are those people who have been canonised, or recorded on the list, or canon, of officially-recognised holy ones.
  • Saints include martyrs, confessors, hermits, monks, scholars, Doctors of the Church, and patron saints.
  • There are three stages in the Church’s process of considering a person for the title of ‘saint.’
 Part 7: Christian Holiness
 
  • Holiness comes from following Jesus’ commandment of love.
  • The saints have achieved holiness and true happiness by living out the Beatitudes.
  • The Beatitudes are a guide for Christian living that challenges attitudes in today’s society.
 Part 8: Saint Mary of the Cross MacKillop
 
  • Melbourne-born Mary MacKillop devoted her life to setting up schools and educating underprivileged children in neglected rural communities in Australia and New Zealand.
  • Mary also setup welfare institutions to make care available for the poor.
  • Mother Mary was beatified on 19 January 1995 in Sydney, by Pope John Paul II.
  • Blessed Mary was canonised on 17 October 2010 at St Peter’s Square, Rome by Pope Benedict XVI.
 Part 9: Contributors to Education
 
  • Saint Angela Merici, Blessed Edmund Rice and Saint Marcellin Champagnat are holy people who responded to Jesus’ call by establishing religious orders to conduct Christian schools
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 15Wholeness and Healing
 Part 1: Biblical Context of Sin
 
  • Thousands of years ago the Hebrew people referred to sin by the word Hattah, which literally meant ‘to miss the target’ or ‘mark’.
  • The ancient Hebrews understood sin to have three dimensions; personal failing in relation to God, falling short of the mark that God set for them, and personal offence or revolt against God.
  • The New Testament defines sin in terms of one’s inner moral compass; a choice from within and part of the human condition.
  • Through his death and resurrection, Christ conquered sin and restored our friendship with God.
 Part 2: Origin of Sin
 
  • In the Bible, sin is a personal failing in relation to God, a falling short of the mark God set for us, and a personal offence or revolt against God from the heart.
  • As a consequence of Adam’s first sin, everyone is born sinful; we are all born with the built-in urge to act on distorted desire to choose evil and disobey God.
  • The doctrine of original sin is inseparable from the doctrine of salvation and freedom in Christ.
 Part 3: Understanding Sin
 
  • Whatever is said, done or desired, can be sinful when it is against God’s law – the eternal law.
  • There are kinds of sin and degrees of seriousness of sin.
  • Capital sins lead to other sins.
  • Social sin is the accumulation of many personal sins.
 Part 4: In Search of Reconciliation and Healing
 
  • We continue to search for healing and reconciliation with the original inhabitants of our land.
  • An historic address has been made to the Australian Parliament and an apology offered to the members of the stolen generation.
  • Restorative justice focuses on repairing the harm that has been done.
  • Pope John Paul II courageously led the Church in repenting for, acknowledging, and repairing the mistakes of the past.
 Part 5: Forgiveness and Reconciliation
 
  • Forgiveness and reconciliation go hand in hand.
  • Forgiveness and reconciliation are modelled in the life of St Maria Goretti.
  • The process of forgiving and moving towards reconciliation begins with a decision to love.
 Part 6: Sacramental Context of Forgiveness and Reconciliation
 
  • The Catholic Church celebrates forgiveness and reconciliation within the context of a sacrament and is based in the ministry of Jesus.
  • Over history, the Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation has undergone change and development.
  • Since the Second Vatican Council (1962-65), the communal dimension of the Sacrament of Reconciliation has been restored with three rites of the Sacrament being celebrated.
 Part 7: Celebrating the Sacrament of Reconciliation Today
 
  • Jesus told the story of the Prodigal Son and it models what reconciliation is all about.
  • There are four parts to the Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation, contrition, confession, penance and absolution.
  • There are three rites in the Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 16 Jesus – The Teacher
 Part 1: Teacher of Hope
 
  • Jesus became incarnate to declare the reign of God to the world through his life, death and resurrection.
  • Jesus taught with power and authority and was known as a rabbi.
  • The marginalised people of Jesus’ society found strength and hope in his teachings.
 Part 2: Stories are Lessons from the Past
 
  • Story telling is a great way of learning and remembering.
  • Jesus knew the power of stories, and used them many times when he was explaining things to people about God’s message.
 Part 3: Modern Parables
 
  • Jesus, while using examples of his time and culture, also has a message for us in our time and culture.
  • By appreciating the context in which the parables of Jesus were told, one can understand their message.
 Part 4: The Kingdom Parables
 
  • Jesus used parables to teach the people, and he used them in such a way as to challenge his listeners to think about the subject matter being considered.
  • The words Jesus spoke in the parables are still relevant and true today.
  • When Jesus taught what the kingdom of God was like, he told people how to be part of that kingdom.
 Part 5: Parables Concerning Jesus’ Second Coming
 
  • Each parable that Jesus used shows us some aspect of the nature of God and God’s kingdom, and the way that God would like us to live our lives.
  • Jesus teaches us about the attitudes that we should have as we await his return.
 Part 6: Jesus Teaches Us About Himself
 
  • Jesus presented himself as the Son of God by speaking about his relationship with the Father.
  • By using the less well-known title of Son of Man, Jesus proclaimed himself to be the Messiah, while concealing this truth from the ordinary people.
  • Jesus gave seven signs, which affirmed his divinity and foreshadowed his death and resurrection.
  • Jesus used the seven sayings, beginning with ‘I am’, to declare his divinity and to affirm that he is the Messiah.
 Part 7: Happiness through Jesus
 
  • True happiness can only be attained in the kingdom of God.
  • The path to perfection consists of practising the Beatitudes, which Christ both practised and preached.
  • The Beatitudes are paradoxical in the sense that Christ promises happiness to those who do certain things, that are the very opposite to what one would expect to bring happiness.
 Part 8: Jesus Teaches Us About Prayer
 
  • Jesus taught his followers about prayer and how to pray, giving us the model of the Lord’s Prayer.
  • We show our love of God by doing God’s will, and we show our love of our neighbours by treating them the way that we want to be treated.
 Part 9: Jesus Invites us to Discipleship
 
  • Jesus calls us to follow his example.
  • We are called to keep the commandments.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 17 Being Catholic
 Part 1: What Catholics Believe
 
  • The Catholic Church is the largest Christian denomination.
  • The Church was founded by Jesus Christ who sent the apostles to continue his mission to establish the kingdom of God on earth.
  • Catholic beliefs, stated in the Apostles’ and Nicene Creeds, are centred on God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, the Church, the sacraments, and life after death.
 Part 2: The People of God
 
  • The family is usually the first place where people share and develop values, rituals and beliefs.
  • The Catholic school has a visible culture that signifies Catholic life and many ways of expressing Catholic belief.
  • The parish presents a Catholic identity in its people and ministries, its structures, symbols and sacred objects.
 Part 3: Australian Catholic Communities
 
  • Australia’s Catholic Church comprises twenty-one dioceses, seven archdioceses and five non-geographical dioceses in Australia, each led by a bishop or archbishop.
  • Pastoral organisations extend from the parish to diocesan and national levels.
  • The Australian Catholic Bishops Conference is the united national voice of the bishops.
 Part 4: Catholic Mission
 
  • Jesus’ mission to proclaim God’s message of love and forgiveness was continued by the apostles and is continued today by the Church.
  • All Christians are called to mission and most do so in their everyday lives as they live in peace and show compassion, generosity and service towards family, friends and those less fortunate.
  • Through the New evangelisation, all Catholics will have the opportunity to revitalise their faith and replace secularism with Gospel values.
  • All people are called to mission and most do so in their everyday lives as they live in peace, showing compassion, generosity and service towards family, friends and those less fortunate.
  • New evangelisation is for priests, religious orders and lay people to revitalise Jesus’ message where secular values have replaced God.
  • Young people have the skills and the special mission to be witnesses to their faith and to share it with others.
  • Many groups and organisations, often founded and run by lay people, are using new and innovative ways to express the gospel message.
 Part 5: Leadership of the Church
 
  • Jesus gave authority to Peter to be the leader of the apostles and the pastoral leader for all people.
  • As Rome became more significant in the Christian world, the bishop of Rome was looked upon as the central figure of the Church. The title of pope was gradually restricted to the bishop of Rome, regarded as the successor of St Peter.
  • The pope serves as the centre of unity for all Catholics and is the spiritual leader who provides guidance and leadership to the bishops of world. The teaching authority of the Church is called the magisterium, which is the voice of the pope and bishops speaking on matters of faith and morals.
  • The pope is also the pastoral leader, using his concern and influence to call for justice and respect for the dignity of all people.
  • Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio was elected Pope Francis in March, 2013.
 Part 6: Vatican City State
 
  • Vatican City State is headed by the pope and recognised under international law as an independent state and has its own government offices.
  • The Holy See is the bishopric of the pope and includes the Curia, Roman Congregations, tribunals and offices.
  • Cardinals often serve in positions in the Roman Curia but their major responsibility is to form a conclave and elect the pope.
 Part 7: Catholic Churches of the East
 
  • Eastern Catholic Churches developed from four Rites or Traditions, i.e. the Alexandrian, Antiochene, Armenian and Byzantine Rites.
  • Twenty-one Eastern Catholic Churches and one Western Catholic Church share the same Creed, doctrines, seven sacraments, and communion with the pope in Rome.
  • The Maronite Church grew from the Aramaic Antiochian Church established at Antioch by St Peter and has parishes in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane.
 Part 8: Another Way of Being Catholic
 
  • The Missionaries of the Poor is an example of a modern religious order.
  • Religious life began in the third and fourth centuries CE.
  • Members of religious orders take vows of poverty, chastity and obedience.
 Part 9: World Youth Day
 
  • Pope John Paul II began the current practice of International World Youth days and gave the Cross and Icon of Our Lady to the youth of the world to be carried around the world.
  • Each World Youth Day has a theme, which is promoted by song, catechesis, celebration and witness.
  • World Youth Day celebrations are times of renewal and revitalisation for the Church, leaving behind a legacy of conversion, energy and commitment.
 Part 10: NET Ministries Australia
 
  • NET began in the USA as a ministry to young people and has spread to Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Singapore and Uganda.
  • The peer to peer ministry presents a vision of life which challenges, equips and encourages young people in the day to day circumstances.
  • After training, national teams travel by van to meet with youth in parishes and schools.
  • Encounter Days with high school students in years 8 to 12 use a variety of activities to encourage students to form a relationship with Jesus.
  • Local teams work in a particular area to provide a link between school and Parish.
 Summary
 Glossary
Stage 5
Unit 18 Dignity of Human Life
 Part 1: Non-Religious Philosophies of Human Life: Humanism and Existentialism
 
  • Non-religious or secular philosophies of life view human life, its meaning and purpose in the context of the temporal world.
  • Religious philosophies of life originate from within the limitations of this world, with a belief in a world to come, and view human life in the context of eternity.
  • ‘Secular humanism’ is a life philosophy that provides a response to the human search for meaning and purpose in life which does not include God, and focuses on the human being and his or her capacity to achieve fulfilment in this life.
  • Existentialism focuses on the existence of the individual as free and responsible in determining his or her own development and emphasises the role of choice and personal decision making.
 Part 2: Religious Philosophies of Human Life: Christianity
 
  • Catholic teaching on the dignity of the human person is drawn from Scripture and the Church’s Tradition.
  • The human person is not just one among many creatures, but a person called to share in the very life of God.
  • The special dignity that human beings possess makes them unique in all creation.
  • Freedom plays a fundamental role in the life of a human being.
  • Christian faith motivates a person to help others, because the Christian sees the face of Jesus in the other person.
 Part 3: Understanding and Respecting Difference
 
  • Every human being is unique, unrepeatable and infinitely loved by God.
  • Temperaments are organising patterns within the personality which determine an individual’s responses to his or her outside world.
  • Family of origin and personal history influence an individual’s response to the world.
  • Every human being has a personal worth, and society’s task is to acknowledge and develop that worth.
 Part 4: Vulnerability
 
  • A vulnerable person is one whose dignity as a human person is under threat because of his or her difference or dependence on others.
  • When people respond to vulnerability in positive ways, they enhance their own human dignity and that of the vulnerable person. Negative responses are destructive towards one-self and the vulnerable person.
  • We are all vulnerable, easily hurt, and have elaborate systems of self-protection, which keep us from exercising the fullness of our humanity in caring for each other.
  • The support and respect of family and the community, and faith and prayer can enable a person with a disability to respond with courage and determination.
 Part 5: The Indignity of Homelessness
 
  • Homeless people are those who do not have access to safe, secure and affordable housing.
  • Many of the causes of homelessness make it impossible for people to participate in community life.
  • Human beings have a fundamental right to a stable home to provide acceptance and support for the unique dignity of each person.
  • Many organisations have a mission to respect the potential of each person as they offer assistance of food, clothing, shelter and rehabilitation programmes.
  • The organisations of Youth Off The Streets and Oasis assist young people in many and various ways.
  • St Vincent de Paul and MercyCare provide assistance for people of all ages.
 Part 6: Further Issues – Poverty; Justice for Children; Refugees and Asylum Seekers
 
  • With faith and hope, Christians are able to reach out in love to others.
  • A ‘culture of life’ is based on the view that all human beings are worthy of respect because they are created in the image of God.
  • Serious problems in our society that diminish the dignity of human beings are poverty, securing justice for all children and the treatment of refugees and asylum seekers.
  • Poverty is present in Australia among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, young people and students, women and sole parents, people with disabilities, children, the homeless, and those in rural communities.
  • Children are amongst the world’s most vulnerable people in areas of conflict and violence where human rights are ignored.
  • Refugees and asylum seekers fear persecution and even death in their own country and seek refuge in another country.
 Part 7: A Sacrament of Healing, Forgiveness and Hope
 
  • Jesus responded with compassion and healed people’s physical infirmities and suffering, restoring their dignity and self-worth and proclaiming the kingdom of God.
  • Jesus often linked physical healings with forgiveness of sins.
  • He gave the apostles power to forgive sin and heal people’s illnesses.
  • The tradition of laying on hands and anointing with oil was continued in the early Christian communities.
  • After the ninth century, the sacrament for the sick gradually changed to be the sacrament for the dying and was called Extreme Unction.
  • After the Second Vatican Council, its name was changed to Anointing of the Sick to reflect original traditions.
  • Today, this sacrament is for the sick, those having a serious operation, and the elderly and infirm.
 Part 8: To Live as Jesus Lived
 
  • God showed us how to be fully human in the life of Jesus.
  • Jesus showed us how to respect our own human dignity and that of others by being compassionate, forgiving, cheerful and happy, prayerful, faithful and loving.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 19 Formation of Conscience and Values
 Part 1: Relationship between Conscience, Morality and Values
 
  • Our response to a moral situation is determined by our values, which in turn are informed by the moral teachings of the Church and our conscience, as they relate to that particular situation.
  • The Church teaches that there are absolute moral standards to which all humankind must adhere.
 Part 2: Church Teachings – A Source of Moral Principles
 
  • For Catholics, the moral principles taught by the Church guide conduct and behaviour.
  • Human freedom is a free gift from God, to help us to become who God created us to be, and to share eternal union with God.
  • The responsible exercise of human freedom consists of acting in ways that are morally good.
  • Differing degrees of freedom, knowledge and intention influence moral responsibility.
 Part 3: Scripture – A Source of Moral Principles
 
  • Rules reflect moral principles.
  • The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes constitute fundamental and unchangeable moral principles for Christians.
  • Jesus Christ identified the two greatest commandments.
  • The Golden Rule is found in many religions.
 Part 4: Conscience – Our Moral Compass
 
  • Our conscience helps us choose right from wrong.
  • The Catholic Church believes that God speaks through our conscience.
  • Two principles must be considered when using our conscience: it must be informed and we must act on it.
  • Conscience is not infallible.
  • Christian moral decision making is aided by practising the four cardinal virtues.
 Part 5: Stages of Moral Development
 
  • As human beings grow from infancy, through childhood and adolescence to adulthood and beyond, their conscience grows in knowledge and maturity, because their capacity to reason on a moral level develops.
  • The collective model of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Kohlberg’s stages of moral development provides a framework for understanding how the moral principles presented in the Old Testament were fulfilled by the New Law of Christ.
 Part 6: Moral Values
 
  • As human beings grow from infancy, through childhood and adolescence to adulthood and beyond, their conscience grows in knowledge and maturity, because their capacity to reason on a moral level develops.
  • Values can conflict, and choices will need to be made between competing values.
  • Values are influenced by a range of factors.
 Part 7: Morality in Action
 
  • Abortion and teenage alcohol use are complex moral issues.
  • We can resolve moral dilemmas by drawing on facts, Church teachings, Scripture, our conscience and our values in a prayerful and systematic way.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 20The Holy Spirit
 Part 1: Belief in the Holy Spirit
 
  • The Holy Spirit is God and the third person of the Blessed Trinity.
  • The Spirit of God was present at creation and throughout the Old Testament.
  • The Holy Spirit was with Jesus in his teaching and in the events of his life.
  • Jesus promised to send the Holy Spirit to be with us always.
  • We are temples of the Holy Spirit, who has been poured into our hearts.
 Part 2: Images of the Holy Spirit
 
  • The Church uses images and symbols to speak of the Holy Spirit, such as breath, dove, wind, fire, cloud, light, oil, and the laying on of hands.
 Part 3: The Holy Spirit in Scripture and in the Church
 
  • All Scripture is inspired by the Holy Spirit.
  • The Holy Spirit guides and renews the Church, leading people to unity with the Father and the Son.
  • After Jesus’ death and resurrection, the mission of Jesus became the mission of the Church.
  • The Holy Spirit has gifted charisms to the Church to build it up, and to enable Christians to carry out their mission.
 Part 4: Gifts of the Holy Spirit
 
  • The seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are wisdom, understanding, knowledge, reverence, courage, right judgment and wonder.
 Part 5: Fruits of the Holy Spirit
 
  • The fruits of the Spirit are the visible signs of the Spirit’s action within us.
  • The fruits of the Spirit are love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, generosity, gentleness, faithfulness and self-control.
 Part 6: People of the Spirit
 
  • The Holy Spirit is present in every time and place, enabling people to search for goodness and truth through a faithful response to God.
 Part 7: The Holy Spirit and Prayer
 
  • The Holy Spirit is our helper in prayer.
  • Jesus encouraged us to pray to the Holy Spirit.
  • There are many ancient and modern prayers as well as songs to the Holy Spirit.
 Part 8: Movements of the Holy Spirit
 
  • The Catholic Charismatic Renewal is a movement within the Catholic Church that gives witness to the power and gifts of the Holy Spirit in worship and in people’s lives.
  • Communities have been formed that are Charismatic in nature, including religious communities of priests and religious.
 Part 9: The Holy Spirit in Art
 
  • Throughout the centuries, the Holy Spirit has been represented in art as a dove or tongues of fire.
  • The Spirit is represented as a person in Andrei Rublev’s icon, ‘The Trinity’.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 21Christian Reformations
 Part 1: Christianity before the Reformations
 
  • At the end of the Middle Ages, commerce was beginning to replace farming as the basis of economic power, and there were considerable political, social and technological changes.
  • The time of the Christian reformations in the early sixteenth century CE, is among the most significant periods of change in Church history.
  • Church councils were called in order to refute heresy and clarify Church teaching.
 Part 2: The World of the Reformations
 
  • The Renaissance was a movement of great cultural revival in art, literature, science, religion, politics and indeed all aspects of intellectual life.
  • As a result of the printing press, the dissemination of materials could be done much more effectively, and works could reach a much wider audience than ever before.
  • Various issues led to resentment among the German rulers and people towards the pope, and had a large part to play in the religious and political turmoil that was to follow.
 Part 3: Church Life in the Late Middle Ages
 
  • The Church was part of everyday life in the Middle Ages.
  • People expressed their faith through the Mass and Sacraments, images in churches, devotions, pilgrimages and confraternities.
  • Throughout Europe, the plague forced people to confront questions of life after death.
  • Some Church practices had become corrupt and in need of reform.
 Part 4: The Protestant Reformation Begins
 
  • The nailing of Martin Luther’s 95 Theses to the door of the castle church of Wittenberg, was a catalyst for the Protestant reform that followed in Europe.
  • The ensuing debate ignited turmoil across Europe and England, fuelled by both theological and political agendas.
  • Henry VIII was instrumental in the establishment of the Church of England and separation from Rome.
 Part 5: Protestant Denominations
 
  • With the clear teaching of the Augsburg Confession, Lutheranism spread from Germany to other parts of Europe.
  • As Protestant ideas spread across Europe, other scholars began to elaborate and add their own emphases to the doctrines expressed, viz. Calvin and Zwingli.
  • The Anabaptists were a more radical Protestant group who objected to infant baptism and reserved baptism for adults.
  • The Church of England remained essentially Protestant and separate from the Catholic Church.
 Part 6: The Catholic Reformation
 
  • The Catholic Church’s response to the Protestant Reformation is known as the Counter Reformation, or Catholic Reformation.
  • The Council of Trent was called to respond to Protestant claims, to address abuses and to reaffirm Catholic Teaching.
  • Implementation of the Council of Trent included the establishment of offices to deal with heresy, and the publication of a creed and catechism.
 Part 7: People and Achievements of the Catholic Reformation
 
  • Charles Borromeo was a key player in the later part of the Council of Trent, and is credited with implementing many recommendations of the Council.
  • New religious orders sprang up, seeking to return to more appropriate practices, and some existing ones were reformed.
  • Catholic Reformation saints include Ignatius Loyola, Edmund Campion, Teresa of Avila, John of the Cross.
 Part 8: Catholic Missionaries
 
  • As new lands were discovered, missionaries followed with the Gospel under the patronage of the Portuguese and Spanish crowns.
  • Jesuit reductions were set up for the protection of Guarani Indians, as well as the spread of Christianity.
  • In the sixteenth century, missionaries, including St Francis Xavier and Matteo Ricci, travelled to the Far East along the routes that had been established for trade.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 22Call to Holiness and Service
 Part 1: Living Purposefully
 
  • For Christians, the meaning of life has Christ as the foundation, because through baptism, we are called to participate in the life of Christ by building the kingdom of God, which he inaugurated by his life, death and resurrection.
  • Christians are called to be priest, prophet and king by giving of themselves in selfless love and service.
  • Holiness is a deep sharing in the life and love of God.
  • The call we have received from God by virtue of our baptism to be priest, prophet and king is essentially a call to love.
  • Vocation is about how I respond to God’s call to be priest, prophet and king within the contexts of my chosen career and lifestyle (as a single or married person or as an ordained priest or religious).
 Part 2: Vocation – Participating in the Life of Christ
 
  • All the baptised are called to holiness and share in the life and love of God through Christ.
  • Christians participate in Christ’s priestly, prophetic and kingly role irrespective of whether they are single, married, ordained priest or consecrated religious.
  • Through the Church, Christ blesses the people of God with three sacraments, Confirmation, Matrimony and Holy Orders, to help them live their Christian vocation.
 Part 3: The Married Life
 
  • In ancient times, marriage was the single most important means of ensuring the continuity of future generations, maintaining a cohesive social network, distributing wealth among families and securing adequate protection against external dangers.
  • The Old and New Testaments provide insights into how the ancient Jews, and later the early Christians understood marriage.
  • As a sacrament, the marriage of two baptised Christians has the status of being a vocation, a call to holiness, to a special and unique relationship with a marriage partner, and with Christ.
 Part 4: Nature of Sacramental Marriage
 
  • The Sacrament of Matrimony gives the married couple grace to create a community that resembles the love God has for all people and to raise children in a nurturing environment.
  • Mixed marriages are marriages between a Catholic and a person from another Christian denomination, or a Catholic and a non-Christian.
  • Marriage preparation programmes help the couple examine issues that could affect their life together.
  • Symbolism in the rite of matrimony reveals the true meaning and significance of a Christian marriage.
 Part 5: Living as Single Celibate Lay Christians
 
  • The Church makes it clear that the life of a single and celibate Christian is a vocation.
  • Single lay Christians have much to offer by participating in the mission of the Church in the world.
  • It is essential that those who choose as their vocation the life of a single person, are also members of a supportive community.
 Part 6: Origins and Development of the Priesthood
 
  • The Old Testament priesthood prefigures the priesthood of Christ and in turn, the Christian ministerial priesthood.
  • Christ instituted the ordained priesthood in order to continue his own priesthood of the New Covenant, brought about by his sacrifice on the cross.
  • There are three ordained ministries in the Catholic Church – the episcopate and presbyterate are ministerial in nature and the diaconate is a ministry of service.
 Part 7: The Vocation to the Priesthood
 
  • Priesthood is a multidimensional ministry with its source and sustenance in a priest’s relationship with God.
  • The priest needs to possess special attributes to be able to participate effectively in the priestly ministry of the Church.
  • Men who are called to the vocation of the priesthood spend many years in training and spiritual, theological and pastoral formation.
  • The Rite of Ordination always takes place within the context of the Mass.
 Part 8: Religious Life as a Vocation
 
  • Consecrated religious life is focused on total dedication to God through participation in the life and love of Christ first entered into at Baptism, through the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience.
  • By virtue of their consecration, religious live in community, regardless of their apostolic work, and under the authority of a religious superior.
  • Consecrated religious life began very early in the Church when men and women left their homes to live in the desert as hermits, monk and nuns – their motivation was to grow closer to God through prayer, austerity and solitude.
  • Throughout its historical development, consecrated religious life has adapted to the changing circumstances and needs of society.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 23The Gospels
 Part 1: The Story, the Poem and the Song
 
  • Sharing stories, reciting poems or singing songs are among the actions that make us human.
  • When we want to share the deeper kinds of truths we tell stories or recite poems or sing songs.
  • The Scriptures are mostly stories, because they are about the deeper kinds of truth; about God, life, death, healing, forgiveness and love.
  • The story of Jesus reveals most fully both who God is and who we are.
 Part 2: The New Testament as Literature
 
  • Different literary forms, or ‘genres’, are used to explore the deeper truths of who Christ is in the various Gospels that make up the core of the New Testament.
 Part 3: How the Gospels Were Written
 
  • The New Testament comprises texts that deal with the actions, teachings, death and resurrection of Jesus, and the beginnings of the Church through the power of the Holy Spirit.
  • Jesus Christ is God’s self-revelation in person.
  • The gospels are grounded in the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, before they were passed on by word of mouth, and eventually written down.
 Part 4: Four-Dimensional Portrait
 
  • Each of the four gospels tells its own unique story of Jesus, combining to give us a fuller, more complete picture of Jesus.
  • They also reflect the experience, concerns and circumstances of the communities for whom they were written.
  • Their enduring value for all subsequent generations is that the living Jesus is enabled to emerge from these stories and (in a sense) speak to us also.
 Part 5: Powerful Stories of Powerful Works
 
  • The word ‘miracle’ is never used in the gospels to describe what Jesus does. The gospels speak either of ‘signs’ (John) or ‘powerful works’ (the synoptic gospels).
  • The so-called ‘miracles’ are more like ‘parables in action’: actions that are meant to challenge the way we think.
  • Faith is the key to understanding the signs and powerful actions that Jesus gave.
  • By freeing people from physical evils or overcoming natural forces of chaos, Jesus was showing his power to release people from the power of evil.
 Part 6: The Resurrection
 
  • The resurrection is the central transforming truth of the Christian faith.
  • The disciples experienced the presence of the crucified and Risen Jesus among them in a way that utterly transformed them.
  • The New Testament is the faith statement of the early Church, based on the testimony of those first witnesses to the resurrection.
 Summary
 Glossary
Stage 5 – 6
Unit 24World Religions (SOR)
 Part 1: Interfaith Dialogue
 
  • Religions of the world have a crucial role to play in the achievement of world peace.
  • Interfaith dialogue requires an appreciation of world religions and aims to promote understanding.
  • The Second Vatican Council is the first Council in the history of the Church to speak positively of other religious traditions.
 Part 2: The Nature of Religion
 
  • A person with a religious worldview looks at and interprets reality through the lens of religion.
  • A religious worldview acknowledges that there is a supernatural dimension to reality that has an effect on life now, as well as after death.
  • The characteristics of religion interact to produce a dynamic and living religion.
  • Religion contributes to the individual as well as to society and culture.
 Part 3: Buddhism
 
  • Buddhism was founded in India by Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha) towards the end of the sixth century BCE.
  • Buddhism’s principal beliefs include:
    • the Three Jewels
    • the Four Noble Truths
    • the Three Marks of Existence: Karma, Samsara and Nirvana.
  • The sacred texts and writings include the Tripitaka, Lotus of the Good Law and the Tibetan Book of the Dead.
  • Core Ethical Teachings include the Five Precepts and the Vinaya.
  • Puja is carried out as personal devotion in the home.
 Part 4: Christianity
 
  • Jewish Christianity originated in Israel during the period of Roman occupation which began in 63 BCE.
  • Principal events in Jesus’ life include the Annunciation of his birth to Mary, the Nativity, Baptism, Public Ministry, Passion, Death, Resurrection and Ascension.
  • As ‘Master and Lord’, Jesus modelled true greatness through loving service of others, and in doing so he is the model for Christian life.
  • After the death of Jesus, Christian communities formed under the leadership of the apostles and the missionary travels of St Paul.
  • Christianity’s principal beliefs include belief in Jesus, human and divine, the resurrection of Jesus, the Triune God, God’s gradual self-revelation and its culmination in Jesus the Christ as universal saviour.
  • The Bible, Christianity’s sacred text, is the inspired Word of God and source of faith and guidance for Christians.
  • The Ten Commandments, Beatitudes, and Jesus’ commandment of love provide moral guidance for Christians.
  • Christians express personal devotion using any of the four types of prayer – adoration and blessing; intercession and petition; thanksgiving; praise.
 Part 5: Hinduism
 
  • Hinduism, or sanatana dharma – the eternal religion, with its devotion to the gods, originated with the early inhabitants of the Indus Valley, in what is called, the Vedic period.
  • Its principal beliefs include Atman and Brahman, gods and goddesses, Dharma, Karma and Moksha, as well as union with God through yoga.
  • The sacred texts of Hinduism include the Vedas, Upanishads and the Epics – the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
  • The four varnas comprise the principal ethical teachings of Hinduism, while the ashramas are everyday applications of these ethical teachings.
  • Devotion in the home consists of puja, by which the devotee is able to make direct contact with deities, without the intervention of a priest.
 Part 6: Islam
 
  • Islam was revealed to Muhammad, considered by Muslims to be a prophet, between c.610 CE and 632 CE, and its early development took place under the leadership of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs.
  • Islam’s principal beliefs are expressed in the six principal articles (aqida), which constitute the core creed of all Muslims.
  • Islam’s sacred texts and writings consist of the Qur’an, considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God revealed to Muhammad, and the Hadith, reports or narrations on the speech, actions, tacit approvals and descriptions of Muhammad.
  • Islamic Law is a comprehensive legal system which includes religious, civil, criminal, business, family, inheritance, marriage and divorce laws.
  • The five essential duties of Muslims comprise the Five Pillars of Islam.
 Part 7: Judaism
 
  • According to Jewish tradition, Abram son of Terah, born in the city of Ur in Southern Mesopotamia around 1800 BCE, was called by God when he was 75 years of age and made an offer which had all the characteristics of a covenant or b’rit (Gen 12:1-7).
  • Judaism, also called ethical monotheism, teaches one God who has a number of attributes, along with the importance of the Covenant for Jewish people.
  • In their broadest sense, the Hebrew sacred writings consist of two traditions, the written TaNak and the oral Talmud.
  • The divine moral Law, or principal ethical teachings, has been codified in the Torah and explained and elaborated upon in the Talmud and other Jewish religious literature.
  • Shabbat is the most important ritual observed in Judaism and finds its source in the direct command God gave the Chosen People at Sinai, after leading them out of Egypt with a mighty hand and outstretched arms.
Unit 25Bringing About Kingdom
 Part 1: The Coming of the Kingdom
 
  • Jesus and his saving presence usher in a new era in the coming of the kingdom of God.
  • The Beatitudes exemplify the lifestyle and mind-set of one who belongs to the kingdom of God.
  • Jesus worked miracles and wonders to show that the kingdom of God was at hand.
  • The Church continues the mission of Jesus.
 Part 2: Building the City of God
 
  • The term ‘city of God’ is an image or metaphor referring to the kingdom of God and has various interpretations, some of which are misleading.
  • As citizens of the city of God, St Paul says, we are part of God’s household and part of a building that has Jesus as its cornerstone and the apostles and prophets as the foundations.
  • Christians are called to give hope to the building of the ‘city of God, the civilisation of love’.
 Part 3: The Kingdom of God in Mark
 
  • The new age of salvation has already begun and people are at the threshold of the end of time when the kingdom will be inaugurated in all its fullness.
  • The victory of the kingdom of God over evil, suffering and death is hidden in the cross, and will be realised at the end of time, when Jesus will come again.
  • Jesus spoke in parables to demonstrate what the kingdom of God is like, how one is to receive and enter the kingdom and how he is the manifestation of the kingdom of God.
 Part 4: Keystones of the Kingdom
 
  • Jesus announced that the Spirit of the Lord had anointed him and sent him to bring good news to the poor, to proclaim liberty to captives and sight to the blind; to set the downtrodden free and proclaim the Lord’s favour (Lk 4:18).
  • Building a city and ‘civilisation of love’ is the task and vocation of each person individually and with others.
  • Justice is understood to be fair dealing in relationships with others, individually and communally, and is spoken of in terms of one of three types of justice.
 Part 5: Social Justice
 
  • Social justice refers to creating a society that recognises and upholds the principles of equality and solidarity, and values and respects the dignity of every human person.
  • The Church articulates her teachings about social justice in seven general principles.
 Part 6: Human Dignity and Social Justice
 
  • Created in the image and likeness of God, each person is endowed with an essential, permanent and sacred value, which is unable to be taken away or violated.
  • Catholic teaching on human dignity comes from biblical, moral and theological understandings of the human person.
  • Church teachings on human dignity can be found in encyclicals and the Catechism of the Catholic Church.
  • Human rights flow as a natural outcome and consequence of human dignity.
 Part 7: Society and Social Justice
 
  • Linked and interconnected in a fraternity of unity and love, every human person belongs to the world of humanity; every human person is mutually interdependent: no one stands alone.
  • It is our Christian duty to engender, nurture, promote and uphold loving and just relationships with others, be it in family, church, school, employment, leisure or elsewhere.
  • The building blocks of human relationships are truth, freedom, justice and peace.
 Part 8: Indigenous Peoples, the Homeless and Asylum Seekers
 
  • Social justice is an issue affecting approximately 5,000 indigenous groups worldwide.
  • Hebrew and Christian Scriptures make special note of the priority of care to be given to the traveller, the homeless, the orphan, the refugee, the foreigner, the stranger, and the asylum seeker.
 Part 9: Environment, Economics and Education
 
  • Social justice issues confronting us today extend far beyond human, individual, personal, local, national and international boundaries, encompassing relationships and responsibilities of ecological and cosmic magnitudes.
  • Stewardship is the human responsibility entrusted to us by the Creator of the universe to care for, share with others, and look after our natural world.
  • To work is to share as co-creators in the work of God’s creative activity.
 Part 10: Christian Social Justice
 
  • Christians are called to right the wrongs committed against the poor and oppressed, to bring about the love, peace and justice of God’s kingdom.
  • Catholic Action groups have developed a process for social change called SEE, JUDGE, and ACT.
  • God raised up the Hebrew prophets to speak God’s message of justice and righteousness amidst social corruption and injustice.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 26Modern Church History
 Part 1: Coming to the Modern Age
 
  • Throughout history, the Church has continued the mission of Jesus.
  • Because the Church is immersed in human history, it has both influenced history and been influenced by it – the modern Church is no different.
 Part 2: Beginning the Modern Age
 
  • The Enlightenment, or Age of Reason, was an eighteenth-century movement that had its beginnings in the seventeenth-century.
  • When speaking about truth one must be aware that there are different kinds of truth, and each one is valid. In addition, each has its area of concern and field of influence, as well as its own method of reaching conclusions.
  • Great philosophers and scientists of the time challenged the Church and its teachings with an over-emphasis on individual freedom and the role of reason.
 Part 3: The World in Revolt
 
  • The eighteenth and nineteenth-century revolutions brought great economic and social change.
  • These ‘revolutions’ had a profound impact on the Church.
 Part 4: Spiritual Revival
 
  • In 1891, Pope Leo XIII’s Encyclical, Rerum Novarum – Concerning New Things, was the beginning of the Catholic Church’s engagement with concepts of social justice.
  • During the spiritual revival of the nineteenth century, a number of lay movements and apostolic religious congregations developed within the Church and took up the challenge of Christian ministry.
  • Special devotions developed to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Blessed Virgin Mary.
 Part 5: Missionary Activity
 
  • From 1815 the Church was no longer just European, but was on its way to becoming global – a worldwide Church.
  • The Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith was established in 1622 by Pope Gregory XV to assume authority for missionary activity on behalf of the Holy See.
 Part 6: A Changing World – Vatican I
 
  • Loss of the Papal States was necessary for Italian unification, even though it resulted in the loss of the papacy’s temporal power.
  • Pope Pius IX wrote the Syllabus of Errors in response to the events and movements of the nineteenth century.
  • The main purpose of the First Vatican Council was to institute the doctrine of papal infallibility, and to confirm the papal denouncement of movements such as rationalism, liberalism and materialism.
 Part 7: Benedict XV and the World at War
 
  • The Universal Church was in a difficult position during the Great War with members on both sides of the war.
  • The Church continued to proclaim Jesus’ message by condemning the injustices of war and attempting to help all victims of the conflict.
  • While trying to negotiate peace, the Church attempted to remain neutral.
 Part 8: Post World War I Church
 
  • The First World War totally changed the political and social structure of the world, and while the nations of the world, new and old, attempted the rebuild, totalitarianism grew quickly.
  • Communists gained political control of Russia in 1917, under the leadership of Lenin, and this resulted in the persecution of the Church.
  • Pope Pius XI condemned communism and continued to offer the Gospel teachings as a viable alternative.
  • The Lateran Agreement with Mussolini formally established the Vatican as an independent state, and Catholicism as the state religion of Italy.
  • The Nazi government developed a policy called the Final Solution, which planned for the complete extermination of the Jewish people in Germany and in any territories Germany controlled.
  • After gaining full control of the government, Hitler began to impose restrictions on Catholics and the Catholic Church.
  • In the light of the spread of atheistic, totalitarian regimes, particularly in Europe, as well as a marked increase in the persecution and murder of Catholics, Pius XI spoke out against the evils of Nazism.
 Part 9: World War II (1939-1945)
 
  • Pope Pius XII faced the difficult task of trying to uphold Gospel values while protecting the Church and maintaining the neutrality of the Vatican.
  • The Church responded to the injustices of World War II in word and deed.
 Part 10: Twentieth-Century Change Agents
 
  • In the years between Vatican I (1869-1870) and Vatican II (1963-1965), great challenges took place in society and in the Church.
  • A rich tapestry of popes brought their own talents and personalities to respond to the needs of the Church of the time.
 Part 11: Second Vatican Council (1962 – 1965)
 
  • John XXIII convened the Second Vatican Council to engage the Church in dialogue with the modern world.
  • Changes brought about in the life of the Catholic community by the Second Vatican Council fall into several general areas: Sacred Scripture, sacraments and liturgy, leadership and responsibility, and ecumenism.
  • In 2018, Pope Francis gave formal approval for Australia to hold its first Plenary Council since 1937.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 27 Christian Approach to Loss
 Part 1: Understanding Loss and Grief
 
  • Grieving is a process of healing and recovery that is deeply personal and unique to each one experiencing loss.
  • Although the timing and sequencing of the stages of grief are unique to each individual, the process of grieving has identifiable common elements.
  • Throughout the pages of the Bible, there are numerous stories of loss and grief.
 Part 2: Christ’s Death and Triumph over Death
 
  • The death and resurrection of Jesus form the central and core tenet of Christian belief.
  • St Paul tells us the resurrection of Jesus is the living testimony to every Christian believer, that the dead who die in Christ will be raised up to a new, eternal and glorious life in and with Jesus Christ.
  • All four New Testament gospels include accounts of Jesus’ death and resurrection.
  • Jesus affirmed belief in the resurrection of the dead, despite the opposition of many of the Jews.
 Part 3: Death and Dying in Christ Jesus
 
  • Receiving ashes in the form of a cross, traced on our forehead on Ash Wednesday, is a reminder of our sinfulness and our mortality.
  • Death, a consequence of sin, has been transformed by Christ, because God calls us to God-Self at the moment of our death.
  • Death is the completion of our being made one with Christ, our incorporation into the redeeming act of his death and resurrection.
  • In the waters of Baptism, we die with Christ. In these same waters, we are raised up to a new life in Christ. In the Eucharist, we eat the Bread of Life and drink from the Fountain of Living Waters.
  • Christian symbols and images portray death as reassuring, comforting and filled with the hope and the promise of risen and never-ending life.
 Part 4: Life After Death
 
  • Belief in an afterlife is found among peoples of all ages and cultures. From earliest times, practices and rituals of funeral rites and burials of the dead give testimony to this universal belief.
  • Judaism holds a strong and consistent belief in an afterlife of the soul, but belief in an eventual resurrection of the body to occur at some unknown great and awesome ‘Day of the Lord’ is not as universally held among Jewish groups or sects.
  • Christianity professes a firm and constant belief in an afterlife.
  • Hinduism regards the body as a shell. It is soul inside that cannot be changed or destroyed. This soul takes on different lives in a cycle of birth, death, rebirth in a series of reincarnations, until it arrives at the end cycle, which is called Moksha.
  • The traditional funeral customs of the Indigenous people of Australia are based on a variety of beliefs and are conducted in different ways.
  • However, they all recognise the significance of the spirit or image-soul within the human person and the relationship of the person with the natural world and the spirit world.
  • The Catholic funeral rites have three main parts – the vigil, the funeral liturgy and the rite of committal.
  • In the funeral rites, we entrust the dead to the care of God, and ask God to comfort the living in their grief.
  • The various signs and actions of the funeral rites speak of resurrection and of the new life that we receive through Jesus Christ.
 Part 5: Final Destiny
 
  • At the second coming or Parousia, Jesus will return in power and glory, ushering in the fulfilment of the Messianic reign of God.
  • When Jesus returns in glory, he will come to judge all people, those living and those who have died. This great judgment is referred to as the Last Judgment.
  • Each individual will be judged immediately after death, according to their faith and moral choices – ‘in accordance with his or her works and faith.’
  • In heaven we shall see God, and we shall be like God for we shall see God as God is, face to face.
  • Hell is being separated for all eternity from God. Hell is wherever God isn’t.
  • Those who die in the grace and friendship of God, but are not yet able to enjoy the blessedness of heaven are cleansed of their imperfections and the residue of sin in purgatory.
  • The theory of limbo, understood as a state which includes the souls of infants who die subject to original sin and without baptism, is not official Church doctrine, but remains a possible theological explanation.
 Part 6: The Hope and Promise of a New Creation
 
  • God’s work of creation culminates in the greater work of redemption, realised in the death and resurrection of Jesus.
  • For humanity, this culmination will be the realisation of the unity of all God’s people who, united with Christ, will form the community of the ‘City of God’.
  • For the universe, this culmination will be its restoration to its original state of perfect harmony and balance, and its perfect service of the just, no longer facing obstacles or disruptive occurrences.
  • The book of Revelation uses highly symbolic imagery in describing the final battle between good and evil, between the kingdom of God and the kingdom of Satan.
 Part 7: The Tragedy of Suicide
 
  • Human life is sacred. It originates from and is sustained by God, the author and creator of all life.
  • The Church is and always has been a champion and defender of human life, even when criticised for maintaining an unpopular stance on some controversial moral issue.
  • Suicide reflects a choice for death – a choice to end life, to dispose of the gift of human life, rather than seeing God as the author and keeper of all life.
  • Caring about and concern for our brother and sister are a part of our belonging to the family of God.
 Part 8: Pastoral Care of the Sick, Dying and Bereaved
 
  • Jesus not only cured people physically, he healed them spiritually.
  • No matter how old, sick or useless a human life may appear, it remains sacred and is to be treated with reverent respect and compassionate care.
  • Christianity’s two great commandments of love, and Jesus’ revelation of God as a loving and merciful Father, have strongly influenced and shaped an attitude and culture of concern for the sick and for those who have no one to care for them.
  • Suffering is a way of knowing and experiencing in our own body the power of Christ’s death and resurrection at work within us.
  • Any one of the faithful, who may be in the danger of death from some illness or from old age, is able to receive the Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick.
  • In the Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick, the Church speaks Jesus’ words of pardon and absolution, and anoints the dying person with strengthening oil.
  • Those who have known and accompanied a loved one through a serious or last illness are themselves in need of pastoral care.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 28 New Testament Studies
 Part 1: Revealing Love
 
  • God is revealed in many ways, above all in Jesus, through the Scriptures and in the Church.
  • Jesus reveals to us everything we need to know about God: Jesus is ‘the Word of God Incarnate’.
  • Just as Jesus is the Word of God in human flesh, so the Scriptures are the revealed word of God in human language.
 Part 2: Nature and Structure of the Bible
 
  • The Bible is not a single book – it is many books, or ‘texts’.
  • The Old Testament is what Jesus knew as Sacred Scripture; the New Testament is the fruit of the early Christian Church reflecting on its experience of God in Christ.
  • The Christian canon of Scripture refers to that collection of sacred texts that the Church recognises as the authoritative revelation, or ‘word’ of God.
  • The Old Testament can be arranged in a variety of ways.
  • The New Testament is composed of the four gospels, Acts of the Apostles, letters attributed to Paul, other letters, and the Book of Revelation.
  • The Bible contains a variety of literary forms.
 Part 3: Making Meaning of the Bible
 
  • The Scriptures are not easy to understand, but they are very easy to misunderstand.
  • Biblical stories and poetry explore the deeper truths of life rather than superficial facts, figures, dates of history and science.
  • Like any other text, the Bible needs to be understood in its context, or it becomes a pretext, or lie.
  • A Catholic reading of the Bible always goes beyond the literal to the deeper, more nuanced and creative senses of Scripture.
 Part 4: Beginning to Read the Gospel According to Luke
 
  • Luke’s Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles tell the story of Jesus as the Universal Saviour and of the Church as continuing his saving mission.
  • Luke’s Gospel was probably written in the second half of the first century, for a mixed community of Jewish and gentile Christians, possibly living in Asia Minor, now modern Turkey.
  • Luke teaches that salvation is intended for all people, and that all are now called into the community of God’s People, the Church.
  • As with the other gospels, it took many years and a complex process to produce the Gospel of St Luke.
 Part 5: The Birth of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke
 
  • The birth of Jesus is described in both the gospels of Matthew and Luke, but each treats them quite differently.
  • The infancy narratives are theological rather than journalistic or historical documents.
  • The infancy narratives show Jesus to be the human presence of God among us in the fulfilment of the Old Testament.
 Part 6: The Message of Luke’s Gospel – A Journey of Salvation
 
  • The ‘journey motif’ is a key theme in the entire Bible, and an important feature of all four gospels.
  • In Luke’s Gospel, the ‘journey motif’ provides a framework for the story of Jesus, and in the Acts of the Apostles for the Church.
  • Jesus’ journey to Jerusalem is crucial to his fulfilment of God’s plan of salvation through his death and resurrection.
 Part 7: The Message of Luke’s Gospel – Humanity’s Joy in the Holy Spirit
 
  • The presence and action of the Holy Spirit is a central theme of Luke’s Gospel.
  • Mary plays a significant role of this gospel.
  • Joy is a key feature of the Gospel of Luke.
  • Prayer plays an important part in Luke’s portrait of Jesus. All four features are shared with the Gospel of John.
 Part 8: The Message of Luke’s Gospel: Universal Salvation
 
  • The Gospel of Luke emphasises that God’s saving love is meant for all people.
  • Luke’s Gospel lays great stress on the special place of the poor and the oppressed, as well as children and women.
 Part 9: Revealing Faith: the Message of Saint Paul
 
  • Paul of Tarsus is probably the most influential Christian of all time.
  • Faith in the crucified and risen Jesus is the heart of Paul’s message.
  • Paul did not write a gospel, or a systematic work of theology, but letters to specific churches and individuals.
 Part 10: Revealing Hope: What is the ‘Apocalypse’?
 
  • One of the most important characteristics of the early church was its message of hope; and apocalyptic literature was a well established and widely used means of communicating that hope to an oppressed people.
  • Apocalyptic literature is full of symbolism presented in a highly coded form, and should never be interpreted literally.
 Part 11: The Book of Revelation
 
  • The Book of Revelation was written to encourage Christians to stay true to their faith during a time of crisis.
  • The Book of Revelation looks to the ultimate victory of God in Christ, and is essentially about hope.
  • The number seven is an organising principle in the structure of the Book of Revelation.
 Part 12: Symbols in the Book of Revelation
 
  • The imagery and symbolism of the Book of Revelation are based in Jewish Temple liturgy.
  • Much of the imagery and symbolism is about sacrifice, persecution and scapegoating.
  • Jesus’ self-sacrifice on the cross revealed that the purpose of sacrifice was the opposite of what people normally believed.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 29 Becoming Fully Human
 Part 1: Created in God’s Image and Likeness
 
  • The story of creation in Genesis reveals God as a generous loving creator who makes all of creation good.
  • God’s love and goodness are especially revealed in human beings and highlight the special place human beings have in all creation.
  • Natural law guides human reasoning to act according to what is principally good, just and moral.
  • Jesus confirmed and revealed God’s law of genuine and selfless love.
  • When sin occurs, we are less free to become the persons God wants us to be, and to enjoy the happiness God desires for all humankind.
 Part 2: Jesus Christ – The Foundation for Christian Living
 
  • Jesus Christ is fully God and fully human. Christians believe that Jesus of Nazareth is the full and complete human manifestation of a loving God.
  • Jesus reveals his divine nature in his earthly life as Jesus, and continues to do so as Christ through the workings of the Holy Spirit, present in human beings who choose freely and act morally, according to God’s law of love and life.
  • Christians believe that Jesus Christ provides the foundation for a rich and meaningful life.
  • The Christian way to respond to God’s love in our relationships with God, self and others and creation is through living lives centred on Jesus Christ.
 Part 3: Becoming Fully Human
 
  • Being a disciple of Jesus is choosing to live a transformed life in response to his call.
  • The reign of God that Jesus speaks of is one where life, healing and peace are promoted, affirmed and protected.
  • The good news is that the reign of God is open to all, especially the most disadvantaged.
  • Repentance and conversion are necessary to help bring about the kingdom of God on earth.
 Part 4: Guiding Principles for Moral Decisions
 
  • All human societies are governed by moral standards aimed at promoting the common good.
  • Developing a sense of morality is part of human development, and is generally supported by the values of societies.
  • Different societies have different moral codes, and sometimes within a society, moral standards vary according to beliefs, experiences, culture and religion. For Christians, Jesus Christ must be the standard or norm for all moral choices.
  • Christians are also guided by other principles – natural law, civil law, Scripture, Church teachings and their conscience – in their moral decision making.
 Part 5: Process of Christian Moral Decision Making
 
  • As human beings, we are confronted by numerous decisions each day. However, only some involve moral choices.
  • Christian principles provide a guide and a process for good moral decision making.
  • Our moral decisions affect both ourselves and others.
  • Sometimes, making moral decisions involves us being placed in situations we would prefer to avoid, such as being alienated or criticised for being foolish. In such cases, courage, faith and hope are required.
  • In making moral decisions we need to seek wisdom and understanding through reflection, prayer and dialogue.
 Part 6: The Common Good
 
  • The ‘common good’ refers to those social structures, values, laws, edicts and obligations that are meant to benefit everyone in society.
  • The principle of the common good seeks to ensure that the dignity of each person is upheld.
  • The common good ideally upholds every citizen’s rights to basic needs: food, shelter, education, safety from persecution, the right to fair and just employment, healthcare and the general well-being of every member in society.
  • Jesus upheld the principle of fair and just treatment of people regardless of their social standing.
  • Unjust societies that do not protect or respect the dignity of the most vulnerable in society must be challenged through peaceful and non-violent means, even at the cost of upsetting political authorities.
  • Jesus demands of Christians within every society to take moral responsibility for their decisions and be good examples for others.
 Part 7: Being Morally Responsible
 
  • Those who claim to follow Jesus, the ‘salt and light’ in the world, are responsible for making moral choices which promote the common good, and for speaking out against all seriously evil values that destroy or threaten human dignity and life.
  • In the case of conflicting moral choices because of a particular situation, the choice must be based on the one that results in the lesser evil, or the one least likely to take away life or destroy the central dignity of the human person.
  • Good moral choices and moral behaviours are critical because they affect many people, not just the person making the decision.
 Part 8: Euthanasia – A Disturbing Perversion of Mercy
 
  • God values life so much that we are gifted with the freedom to make the most of our lives and to develop our human potential, but we do not have the right to end human life.
  • The Church is and always has been a champion and defender of life, even when criticised for upholding an unpopular stance on some controversial moral issue involving life.
  • The Church’s moral stand is founded on the belief that human life is sacred. It originates from and is sustained by God, the author and creator of all life.
  • Euthanasia is the killing of an innocent person, usually one who is weak and vulnerable because of illness or disability.
  • Euthanasia is a violation of the fourth commandment in which God clearly and explicitly prohibits and condemns the taking of one’s own or another’s life.
 Part 9: Human Sexuality – A Wonderful Gift and an Awesome Responsibility
 
  • Sexuality affects all aspects of the human person in the unity of their body and soul. It especially concerns affectivity, the capacity to love and to procreate, and in a more general way the aptitude for forming bonds of communion with others.
  • The media is often used to spread distorted and untrue ideas about sex and sexuality, which degrade rather than enhance our human dignity.
  • While the media does not set out to promote sex, the way that sex is portrayed in the media tends to trivialise it.
  • Chastity is the virtue that directs our sexual desires and attitudes toward the truth of love.
  • The Church upholds marriage as the context in which the loving union of a man and a woman, open to the gift of new human life, can be expressed.
  • There is a difference between physicality or the sexual act, and a person’s sexuality. The misunderstanding and misuse of sexuality lead to various forms of exploitation – such as sexism, pornography, rape or sexual abuse – that damage human dignity.
 Part 10: Authentic Christian Living
 
  • To live authentically is to live with a depth of integrity that enables a person to be honest with him or herself, and to enter into honest and sincere relationships with God and others.
  • Moral integrity includes the understanding and adoption of the moral virtues of doing what is right and just in accordance with the commandments of God, and in a way that respects the dignity and sacredness of all creation.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 30 Expressions of Christianity
 Part 1: Creative Expression
 
  • Created in the image and likeness of God and created for God, human beings can inspire others towards God.
  • When they are ‘inspired by truth and love’, human beings mirror ‘God the Creator’.
  • The creative arts have been of service to the Church throughout the ages.
 Part 2: Catacombs and House Churches
 
  • The earliest Christian images that we have, were painted on the walls of the catacombs.
  • Early paintings and inscriptions provide valuable information about the life and thought of early Christianity.
  • Early Christians gathered in house churches.
 Part 3: Christian Basilicas
 
  • After the Edict of Milan, Christianity significantly influenced the direction of Western culture.
  • Architectural features of the Roman basilica were used in the first Christian churches.
  • The first Christian basilicas included San Apollinare Ravenna, the Old St Peter’s Basilica, the Basilica of St John Lateran, the Basilica of St Paul Outside the Walls and the Church of Holy Wisdom, or Hagia Sophia.
 Part 4: Mosaic Icons
 
  • The story of the Church, including its life, its heroes and heroines, was presented visually on the interior of church walls, particularly for the benefit of the uneducated.
  • The Christians of Rome covered the walls, floors, domes and ceilings of their churches with religious mosaics.
  • Examples of Christian mosaics can be found in the churches of St Mary Major in Rome, San Vitale in Ravenna, San Apollinare in Classe, and Hagia Sophia (Church of Holy Wisdom) in Constantinople, now Istanbul.
 Part 5: Plainchant and Hymns
 
  • The first Christians chanted psalms and sang hymns, following the example of Christ and his apostles.
  • During the first few centuries CE, Christians began to respond to heresies with hymns, and also used chants, hymns and songs for people’s edification and instruction.
  • Liturgical celebrations were enriched by both Byzantine Chant and Gregorian Chant.
 Part 6: Fortification and Ornamentation
 
  • The heavy masonry, thick walls and narrow openings which fortified churches and basilicas against invading armies, became known as the Romanesque style.
  • Unlike earlier Christian basilicas, the exteriors of Romanesque churches were often decorated with relief sculptures.
  • Images started to move beyond retelling the Christian story and ornamentation, towards interpretation and symbolism.
 Part 7: Manuscripts, Composers and Compositions
 
  • Illuminated manuscripts treated scenes from sacred history, and their role as expressions of Christianity remains considerable.
  • Composers of sacred music introduced a more ‘heavenly’ atmosphere into a church than could be obtained by just reading from the Bible.
  • Originally composed to give God homage and praise, sacred music contributed to the culture of both Church and society.
 Part 8: Cathedrals
 
  • Gothic architecture, sometimes called Catholic architecture, corresponded with the period in history when the Church had become established and was in a position of power and influence in Europe.
  • Religious images belong to the Christian imagination because they are human attempts to express heavenly realities on earth; they are expressions of Christian faith.
 Part 9: Papal Patronage of the Arts
 
  • During the Renaissance, Christian art developed within the context of the re-birth of knowledge and secular learning.
  • Renaissance popes had access to funds from wealthy and aristocratic people, so they spent the money on promoting the papacy through the arts.
  • Renaissance expressions of Christianity through the arts were concentrated in Italy, the centre of Catholicism.
 Part 10: Australian Buildings for Worship
 
  • The design of churches built by the colonial government was influenced by English styles of church architecture of the time, with many built in the Gothic Revival style.
  • Liturgical changes brought about by the Second Vatican Council, influenced the design of Catholic churches.
  • Full and active participation in the liturgy has generated a new generation of sacred songs for congregational singing.
 Part 11: Australian Sacred Art
 
  • Australian sacred art is not like that of Europe.
  • Aboriginal Christian art has incorporated Christian themes and Aboriginal techniques.
  • Australian artists are encouraged to interact with spirituality and art in contemporary Australia.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 31Religious Traditions in Australia Prior to 1945 (SOR)
 Part 1: Australia Inherits from Great Britain
 
  • Australian culture had by World War II been characterised by ongoing tensions between Catholics and Protestants for more than 150 years.
  • The English Reformation resulted in the separation of the Church of England from Rome and led to the systematic eradication of Catholicism in England.
  • English propaganda portrayed the Irish as violent, dirty and ignorant Catholic barbarians.
  • Religious and cultural problems resulting from the English Reformation and conquest of Ireland were brought to Australia.
 Part 2: Arrival and Establishment of Religious Traditions in Colonial Australia
 
  • The arrival of the First Fleet marked the beginning of the systematic mass-scale transportation of convicts to Australia.
  • Attitudes of the establishment towards the convicts, especially Irish Catholics, were far from favourable.
  • In the early years of the colony, religion was used as a means of maintaining good order and moral behaviour.
  • The establishment impressed upon the early colonial psyche a certain cynicism towards institutional religion which was more often than not regarded as a moral policeman.
  • Christianity and Judaism were brought to Australia on the First Fleet by subsequent settlements and by migration.
  • While the Church of England was regarded as the established church, it was never formally granted that status.
  • The Roman Catholic Church had a turbulent and difficult start in Australia because the establishment feared Irish convicts.
  • Small numbers of Muslim sailors and prisoners arrived in Australia on convict ships, but most arrived in the mid-nineteenth century.
  • Small numbers of Buddhists and Hindus arrived during the nineteenth century, but most returned home.
  • The White Australia Policy of 1901 effectively put a stop to the migration of Muslims, Buddhists and Hindus.
 Part 3: Sectarianism
 
  • Sectarian attitudes were evident across many areas of life during the nineteenth and twentieth century.
  • The overall impact of sectarianism was to fuel suspicion and hostility between the Catholic Church and the Anglican and other Protestant churches.
  • Children were often the innocent ‘victims’ of sectarianism, regardless of their religious affiliation.
  • Sectarianism had a deeply divisive impact on many mixed marriages.
  • The arrival of Irish Catholics during the nineteenth century led to sectarian disturbances, riots and malicious attacks on Irish Catholics by the Protestant and secular press.
  • Sectarianism played a very influential role in politics, both at federal and state levels.
  • The government’s attempts to introduce full conscription in 1916 and 1917 became a heated sectarian issue.
  • Evangelical Protestants expressed their loyalty to the British Empire through unions, known as lodges, e.g. Loyal Orange Lodges and the Masonic movement.
  • The Catholic community formed its own men’s organisation, the Knights of the Southern Cross, in 1919, to counter the activities of the Masons and the Orange Lodges.
 Part 4: Contribution of Christianity to Social Welfare
 
  • During the nineteenth century, Anglican Church hierarchy took little interest in the social welfare of ‘white’ Australians, instead concentrating their efforts on the Aboriginal people.
  • Nevertheless, Australian history provides examples of the involvement and leadership of Anglican laypeople in the provision of social welfare, particularly in South Australia.
  • The appointment of Ernest Henry Burgmann as Anglican bishop of Canberra and Goulburn in 1934 was followed by a shift in focus towards addressing social injustices, rather than passively accepting them.
  • The Catholic Church became formally involved in the provision of social welfare with the appointment of Archbishop John Bede Polding to New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania in 1834.
  • From the 1840s onward, Catholic bishops were active in recruiting religious orders from Europe and, in particular, from Ireland, to serve the needs of the rapidly growing Catholic community.
  • Awareness of social justice issues within the Catholic Church community grew under the leadership of Cardinal Moran who laid the foundation for the Church’s extensive welfare service to Australian society.
  • During the 1930s and 1940s, diocesan bishops began to centralise the provision of Catholic social welfare services by establishing diocesan social welfare agencies.
  • From its very beginning in 1882, the Salvation Army focused on the provision of welfare and served the Australian people by providing a great range of services.
  • The contribution of the Methodist Church to social welfare in Australia was relatively minor prior to 1945. The probable reason is that it had very few members in the nineteenth century.
 Part 5: Contribution of Christianity to Rural and Outback Australia
 
  • Anglican solutions to problems faced by rural and outback communities came in the form of Bush Brotherhoods.
  • Like the Bush Brotherhoods, the Anglican Bush Church Aid Society (BCA) was involved in a wide range of ministries, ranging from health care to hostels for young people, religious education, counselling, preaching and conducting church services.
  • During the nineteenth century, the Catholic Church was primarily concerned with ministering to the Catholic community, the majority of whom represented the struggling working classes and the poor.
  • In rural Australia, the presence of the Catholic Church was substantially due to priests and members of religious orders, many of whom were from Ireland and ministered in parishes, schools, orphanages and places for the sick, aged and dying.
  • The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of Australia set up the Australian Inland Mission in 1912 and placed John Flynn in charge of it.
  • In 1928, Flynn set up a trial flying doctor service and in 1942, it became known as the Flying Doctor Service.
  • Within two years of the settlement of the first Lutheran communities in South Australia, missions had been established to work with the Aboriginal people.
 Part 6: Contribution of Christianity to Education
 
  • Christianity’s singularly most important contribution to education in Australia lies in the formation and maintenance of one section of the two-tiered system of education.
  • Essentially, only Church of England and Catholic schools survived in significant numbers as a result of the passing of the various education acts.
  • With the gradual withdrawal of state aid for denominational schools, the Church of England and other Protestant churches shifted their focus to the provision of secondary education.
  • The Australian Catholic bishops established a system of Catholic schools, run by religious orders.
 Part 7: Contribution of Christianity to Public Morality
 
  • Christian temperance movements equated public morality with the outward observance of a set of rules and regulations, such as the observance of the Sabbath and abstinence from drinking alcohol, rather than a series of intrinsic values, which directed human behaviour.
  • At the political level, temperance movements attempted to address issues, such as Sunday observance, alcohol consumption and the sexual exploitation of girls and women, by means of moral control.
  • While Sunday observance laws were still in force, by 1945 there were signs that the churches’ hold on the Sabbath was slipping away.
  • The temperance movement was successful in effecting outward reform in relation to the consumption of alcohol.
  • The temperance movement was to a great extent responsible for the emergence of the six o’clock rush to the pubs, which during World War II became known as the six o’clock swill.
  • The reforms instigated under the influence of the temperance movement created a phenomenon known as ‘sly grogging’, or simply put, meaning the illegal selling of alcohol.
  • While temperance groups actively campaigned to defend the female prostitutes, who they regarded as ‘fallen women’, most governments took a punitive approach aimed largely at controlling the women.
  • In 1885, the Social Purity Society successfully pushed the Protection of Young Persons Bill through the parliament in South Australia, which among other reforms, raised the legal age of consent for girls, to sixteen.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 32Origins and Growth of an Australian Catholic Identity
 Part 1: A Question of Identity
 
  • Our personal identity reflects who we are and as we change, so too does our identity.
  • While the Catholic Church has universal characteristics, it has nevertheless shown cultural diversity, since it reflects local history, traditions and influences.
 Part 2: Convict Origins
 
  • In colonial times, Catholics in Australia faced many difficulties.
  • Irish Catholic convicts and convicts in general were subject to prevailing attitudes.
  • The establishment of the Catholic Church in Australia was influenced by convicts and colonial society.
 Part 3: The Irish Influence
 
  • The most far-reaching influence in the development of an Australian Catholic identity was the Irish.
  • Devotions and sodalites expressed the faith of Australian Catholics in the years when the Church was predominantly Anglo-Catholic and prior to Vatican II.
 Part 4: The Clergy
 
  • The clergy played a significant part in shaping the character of Australian Catholicism.
  • The relationship between the clergy and laity was based on reliance, dependence and an unquestioning obedience to the authority of the priest.
  • The factors that influenced this relationship stemmed from the Irish tradition of a tightly disciplined Church.
 Part 5: Catholic Education
 
  • Catholic Education has had a significant influence in shaping an Australian Catholic identity.
  • Religious congregations have shaped and given direction to Catholic Education in Australia.
  • Australian Catholic schools have played a major part in transmitting the religious and cultural heritage of the Church.
  • Catholic schools have played an important role in gaining social equality for Catholics through civic and academic achievement.
 Part 6: Sectarianism, Politics and International Events
 
  • Politics, and national and international events influenced the development of an Australian Catholic identity.
  • The changing Church impacted on the wider community.
 Part 7: The Church and Social Justice
 
  • The Church has ministered to the oppressed from the earliest days of the Australian colonies.
  • Both clergy and lay people have worked to improve the condition of the poor, oppressed and dispossessed.
  • Social issues continue to challenge the Australian Church.
 Part 8: Australian Catholics in the 1960s
 
  • The community had certain perceptions of Catholics in the post-war period up until the Second Vatican Council.
  • There were typical Catholic attitudes, customs and practices during this period.
  • After the long struggle to achieve recognition as a group, Australian Catholics felt comfortable with their faith and were looking forward to a time of peace and predictability.
 Part 9: A Time of Great Change in the Church
 
  • Significant changes have taken place in the Church as a result of the Second Vatican Council.
  • These changes were based on the need to bring about renewal in the Church.
  • The changes impacted on the Australian Catholic Church.
 Part 10: An Evolving Australian Catholic Church
 
  • The post-war period was a time of significant change for Australia.
  • Social change impacts on individuals, groups and organisations, including the Church.
  • Broadly, there are three phases in the history of the Australian Catholic Church: survival, creating and maintaining structures and responding to change.
  • The nature of the Australian Church is evolutionary.
 Part 11: The Australian Catholic Church Today
 
  • In the twenty-first century membership of the Australian Catholic Church has broadened
  • There is diversity of membership at parish level.
  • There is diversity of observance by members in regard to public worship and involvement.
  • The contribution and influence of lay leadership has increased.
 Part 12: Challenges of the Twenty-First Century
 
  • The Australian Catholic Church faces both internal and external challenges
  • Ecumenism and interfaith dialogue are responses to the signs of our times in multicultural Australia.
  • The Church is engaged in outreach to youth and the New Evangelisation
 Summary
 Glossary
Stage 6
Unit 33Search for Meaning (SOR)
 Part 1: Religion as a Worldview
 
  • A person’s worldview is a way of thinking that provides structure, a sense of purpose, guidance, motivation and meaning for one’s life.
  • Religion may be thought of as the means by which the world of beliefs and the world of human experience are connected to the transcendent and immanent dimensions of the supernatural.
  • Different religious traditions and primal religions define the supernatural differently, and it is these definitions that give rise to different worldviews.
 Part 2: Characteristics of Religion
 
  • Religion consists of a number of dimensions working together to connect the world of beliefs and the world of human experience to the transcendent and immanent dimensions of the supernatural.
  • The seven dimensions of religion are experience, myth, ritual, doctrine, ethics, social and material dimensions.
  • The five major living religious traditions can be examined using these seven dimensions.
 Part 3: Contribution of Religion
 
  • Various Studies have shown that people who are intrinsically religious enjoy higher levels of well-being than individuals with secular viewpoints.
  • There is a positive relationship between intrinsic religiosity and stable marital and family life.
  • Religion provides a stable framework from which ethical principles can be applied to new situations, by directing believers to an understanding of spiritual and human values, of how they ought to live and of what constitutes right conduct.
  • Religion can act as a force for either social stability or social change, because it is in constant interaction with the culture in which it is embedded.
 Part 4: Nordic Religion
 
  • Nordic religion comprised a vast array of stories, rituals, and beliefs about supernatural powers and deities, as well as the origins of the universe.
  • Nordic people believed that the universe was composed of nine interrelated worlds, sustained by the great ash tree, Yggdrasil.
  • Nordic understanding of the creation of the universe was influenced by people’s understanding and view of the world, which in turn was profoundly influenced by their life experience.
  • Nordic people believed in a vast pantheon of gods and supernatural powers, whose responsibilities and dominions overlapped, because the responsibilities of the deities were not clearly defined.
  • The Nordic belief system embraced a framework for understanding the world and creation – polytheism, predestination, reverence for ancestors and the afterlife.
  • Idols were objects of worship and communication with the gods.
  • Sacred spaces were at first confined to outdoor locations, but later comprised wooden temples.
  • Sacred rituals took the form of sacrificial worship, feasts, rituals related to birth and naming, and elaborate marriage ceremonies.
  • Norse mythology closely reflected the Nordic way of life and helped the clans-people make meaning of the world and their lives.
  • Norse mythology played an important role in stabilising the social framework, justifying warfare and ongoing survival by promoting marriage and fertility.
 Part 5: Celtic Religion
 
  • Knowledge of Celtic religion is somewhat fragmentary, because the Celts either never committed their beliefs and religious practices to writing, or their writings were largely destroyed by the Romans.
  • It is difficult to determine with any degree of accuracy whether the Celtic people possessed stories regarding the origin of the universe, because the remnants of myths relating to cosmogony are highly fragmented.
  • There were more than 400 gods and goddesses in Celtic mythology.
  • While the gods and goddesses of the Celtic pantheon were assigned different functions, this division was not rigidly compartmentalised.
  • Celtic religion embraced a complex blend of polytheism and animism, belief in the otherworld, life after death, and magic, as well as apotropaic beliefs and reverence for the human head.
  • The Celts had many sacred objects, sacred spaces and rituals to help them connect to the transcendent and immanent dimensions of the deities they worshipped.
  • Celtic mythology closely reflected the Celtic way of life and helped people to make meaning of the world and their lives.
  • The mythology of the Celtic people provided the context that gave purpose to their existence and enabled them to accept suffering and death.
  • The pantheon of gods and goddesses, rituals and magical chants provided the Celtic people with a connection to the spiritual.
 Part 6: Aztec Religion
 
  • The Aztecs passed on stories of their gods and goddesses orally, although some were recorded in sacred texts and other indigenous books, known as codices.
  • The theme of Aztec creation mythology was that continuous death and destruction threatened the stability of the universe, and that it was necessary to offer up human sacrifices to the deities to maintain stability.
  • The Aztec pantheon was characterised by a large number of gods, each of which was represented in different ways and took on different responsibilities to cover all aspects of Aztec life.
  • The principal beliefs of the Aztec religion embraced polytheism, the rationale behind human sacrifice, cosmology, mythology of death after life, morality, sin and predestination.
  • Icons, sacred places and rituals played an important role in the worship of the many deities of the Aztec pantheon.
  • The Aztec theocracy attempted to stabilise the political and social structure through the use of religious rituals.
  • The people thought that being selected for ritual sacrifice was a great honour, because they genuinely believed that their duty was to fight and die for the gods, and that ongoing sacrifice was necessary to sustain the universe.
  • Aztec mythology placed great emphasis on ascetic and good moral behaviour, thereby contributing to the maintenance of law and order.
  • The theocracy used Aztec mythology to justify war by claiming that the deities needed an ever increasing amount of blood.
  • Aztec mythology provided a thorough framework for understanding the universe.
  • The Aztecs believed in life after death.
  • The Aztecs had a longing for contact with the transcendent, and Aztec mythology provided that contact.
  • Aztec mythology provided a framework for understanding suffering and evil.
 Part 7: Shinto Religion
 
  • Shinto refers to the complex religious and ethical ideas and practices of the indigenous people of Japan prior to religious influence from China and India.
  • The Shinto creation myth consists of two parts, the beginning of the universe and the birth of the deities.
  • According to Shinto mythology the deities are not immortal; like human beings they are vulnerable to injury and death; they show the same feelings as human beings and they are not portrayed as omnipotent, omnipresent or omniscient.
  • The Shinto belief system engages believers in a way of life that embraces a certain attitude towards humanity and all creation, rather than following a specific system of doctrines and ethics.
  • Shinto believers are connected to the immanent and transcendent dimensions of the supernatural through sacred objects, persons, sacred places and religious rituals.
  • The divine status assigned to the Japanese emperors has resulted in an unquestioning allegiance to the emperor of the time and the founding and unification of the nation, and promoted the belief that Japan was the centre of the world and that its people were of divine origin.
  • Shinto has contributed positively to the creation of a harmonious society respectful of nature, a society based on a system of values, rather than a code of ethics and doctrine.
  • Many Shinto rituals have survived to this day and form an important part in the religious landscape of Japan.
  • Shinto influence is apparent in art, drama, literature and dance as well as in the many shrines found throughout Japan.
  • Shinto mythology provided the ancient Japanese people with a framework for understanding the creation of the universe, and in particular human beings.
  • Shinto mythology provided people with an acceptance of the human condition.
  • The ultimate goal of Shinto is to attain magokoro.
  • The ancient Japanese people were deeply spiritual, and Shinto mythology provided the means by which they could connect with the kami.
 Part 8: Taoism
 
  • Taoism is an indigenous Chinese belief system with the core message that life constitutes an interconnected and unified whole which is constantly being transformed.
  • The heavens and earth emerged from a hatched cosmic egg, causing the yin to float upward to form the heavens, while the yang descended and became the earth.
  • Taoist mythology presents the yin and yang as the organising principles of creation.
  • Taoist deities represent different qualities and attributes that have responsibilities and specific powers and abilities within their particular areas of expertise.
  • The Taoist pantheon is organised into a hierarchical structure resembling that of the bureaucracy of Imperial China.
  • Tao represents the underlying natural order of the universe and acts like the force that keeps the universe balanced and ordered.
  • The aim of wu wei is to achieve a state of perfect harmony with the Tao, and, as a result, to obtain a type of liberating, invisible power.
  • The cosmos is characterised by harmony and order, but the Tao continuously transforms the chaos that exists in the microcosm by the interaction of the yin and yang to achieve harmony at the macroscopic level.
  • The goal of the Taoist is to harmonise one’s soul and body with the Tao.
  • Life and death are simply two aspects of the same reality, the continuous transformation of the microcosm by the Tao; it is something natural that should neither be feared nor desired.
  • Immortality is a transformation of one’s mind to become completely attuned to and engaged with the present, to become one with the Tao.
  • The Three Jewels or Treasures of Taoism espoused by Laozi express the fundamental ethical guidelines of Taoism.
  • Sexual ethics play an important role in prolonging life.
  • Taoist believers are connected to the immanent and transcendent dimensions of the supernatural through sacred objects, persons, sacred places and religious rituals.
  • The most important contribution Taoism made in its pure form was to maintain a stable, functioning society.
  • While the ancient sexual teachings of Taoism contributed to the stabilisation of family life, they were also used to justify sexual promiscuity.
  • Taoist faith healers and hygienists added to the medical knowledge of the time.
  • Taoism provided the ancient people with a framework for understanding creation and the continual transformation of the universe, and their role in the world.
  • Taoists understood evil, suffering and sickness in terms of some moral failing or personal sin.
  • The ancient Chinese people were deeply spiritual, and Taoist mythology provided the means by which they could connect with the Tao and the deities – manifestations of the Tao.
 Glossary
Unit 34Alternative Religious Movements
 Part 1: Religious Responses
 
  • The study of religion provides a background against which one’s own faith system can be tested, as well as opportunities to look at issues with an open mind and heart.
  • Differences between religions can be identified by considering variations in the characteristics of religion and their expressions.
  • Faith consists of what is believed, i.e. a statement of belief, as well as the action or attitude of believing.
  • Religion is significant for individuals, communities and society.
 Part 2: New Religious Movements
 
  • Dissatisfaction with mainstream religions has resulted in an increasing number of people seeking the ‘truth’ elsewhere.
  • Multiculturalism and modern travel have exposed many people to other religious traditions.
  • There are many reasons for the growth of new religious expressions and spiritualities.
 Part 3: Sects
 
  • A sect is normally a religious movement that has grown separately from an established recognised religion.
  • Many sects develop into churches of their own right.
  • While there are numerous different sects, they generally fall into one of four different categories.
 Part 4: Cults
 
  • There is no clear consensus as to which religious groups should appropriately be designated ‘cults’ and which should not.
  • Cults have some features in common, including authoritarian leadership, denial of Christian teaching, claim to special revelations, isolation from the world, and opposition to society.
  • Cults frequently reject orthodox Christianity, believing it has lost the ‘true faith’ and that the new message they have received restores the ‘true faith’.
 Part 5: Some Issues Concerning Cults
 
  • People who become victims of cult beliefs and practices lose productive years for contributing to the common good.
  • There is no specific ‘personality profile’ for those who get involved in cults.
  • We all need the support of family and friends, as well as other trusted people.
 Part 6: Fundamentalism
 
  • Fundamentalism originated in America toward the end of the nineteenth century as a reaction against the liberal and modernistic ideas of the time.
  • It defines itself in relationship to society, or a particular religious tradition or denomination and is characterised by:
    • a literalist approach to religious text
    • a legalistic ethical system – fundamentalist ethics
    • conservatism or traditioning
    • reliance on strong leadership
    • reactionary nature, prejudice and intolerance
    • fascination with the end of time.
  • A fundamentalist view of the Bible is characterised by the belief that all Christian truth is contained in it, and it is the sole authority in faith and morals.
 Part 7: The New Age Movement
 
  • In the 1970s and 80s, the New Age Movement (NAM) predicted a ‘New Age of heightened spiritual consciousness and international peace’.
  • ‘New Age’ is an umbrella term covering a collection of beliefs and practices people embraced in their search for the spiritual.
  • Even though New Age Movements respond to deep spiritual longings from within the human person, they are ‘counter to Christian revelation’.
 Part 8: A Catholic Response to the Religious Supermarket
 
  • While the Council brought about both timely and welcome changes in the Church, the enormous paradigm shift, or model of church, left many people confused and bewildered.
  • Some Catholics left the Church for new religious groups, without truly considering or knowing why they were rejecting the Church in the first place.
  • Five common attractions of New Age Movements are also part of Catholic life,
    1. importance of the human spiritual dimension and its integration with the whole of life
    2. search for life’s meaning
    3. link between human beings and the rest of creation
    4. desire for personal and social transformation, and
    5. rejection of a rationalistic and materialistic view of humanity.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 35Old Testament Studies
 Part 1: The Old Testament
 
  • God desires that we should all be happy and the Bible’s key to happiness is ‘the getting of wisdom’.
  • Biblical wisdom is the fruit of experience.
  • The wisdom writings of the Old Testament are a testament to Israel’s spirituality and ethics.
 Part 2: Israel – ‘My Firstborn’
 
  • Israel is the model of ‘how to be a people’, meant for all the nations to follow.
  • The Old Testament is the story – the ‘memorial’ – of how God’s people, Israel, grow in wisdom through trial and error.
  • This is a radically honest story about the human condition – sometimes scandalously honest.
 Part 3: Torah – ‘The Way They Should Live’
 
  • Torah is the pattern of the world as God desires the world to be.
  • The laws and commandments in the Old Testament are the basis of western ethics.
  • Ethics is about living life justly, compassionately and rightly, so as to flourish according to our human nature.
 Part 4: Prophets – ‘I desire Mercy, not Sacrifice’
 
  • While created good and created for God, humanity is deeply wounded and in need of healing.
  • When Israel failed to live by the Torah, God sent prophets to call the people back to the way of justice.
  • The Prophets were people who spoke God’s word of truth and called the people to return to God.
 Part 5: Temple – ‘How I Love your Dwelling Place’
 
  • The Temple was the symbolic ‘dwelling place of God on earth’.
  • The Temple represented the ‘cosmos’ – the ordered world of human society.
  • Its purpose was to offer a graphic and ritual experience of Torah as the pattern of the world in right relationship.
 Part 6: Covenant – ‘I shall be their God and they will be My People’
 
  • God’s ‘election’ of the people of Israel was not exclusive, but it was deliberate and specific.
  • Matrimony is the key symbol for God’s relationship with Israel, God’s ‘Bride’.
  • Sexuality receives its biblical meaning from Israel’s relationship with God as its ‘Bridegroom’.
  • ‘Covenant’ is a seed-concept of ‘divinisation’, Christianity’s key anthropological teaching.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 36Grace and Nature
 Part 1: Being Human
 
  • The ability to self-reflect and self-question is unique to the human person.
  • Psychology is about the study of objective human behaviour and the health of the human psyche.
  • Religion is about the spiritual life of human beings and living life into eternal life.
 Part 2: James and Freud
 
  • Modern psychology is very different from the Church’s philosophical and theological approach to the human person.
  • William James applied the principles of the new science of psychology to religious experience.
  • Sigmund Freud’s prime concern with religion was its origin in the human unconscious or psyche.
 Part 3: Jung and Allport
 
  • Carl Jung and Gordon Allport examined the relationship between religion and psychology.
  • Carl Jung’s focus on wholeness led him to consider religions as worthwhile instruments in the process of becoming whole.
  • Gordon Allport was concerned with the role which religion played in the life of the mature individual.
 Part 4: Developmental Psychology
 
  • Developmental psychologists focus on tracking personal changes or developments throughout the human life span.
  • Jean Piaget was interested in how children think and learn.
  • Erik Erikson’s theory of human development covered a continuum from birth to death.
  • Daniel Levinson focused on adult human development.
  • Carol Gilligan focused on women’s moral development.
 Part 5: Faith and Moral Development
 
  • Moral development theories have been developed by Lawrence Kohlberg and Carol Gilligan.
  • Faith development theories have been developed by John Westerhoff and James Fowler.
  • Whilst psychological and developmental theories contribute to our understanding of faith and moral development, they cannot address God’s action – grace – in the person.
 Part 6: The Whole Person
 
  • Development of the whole person, holistic development, fosters the integration of all aspects of the person.
  • God became fully involved with human beings in the person of Jesus, who showed us how to live.
  • The process of conversion is a process of continuous growth and change, a journey to the fullness of life offered by Jesus.
 Part 7: Spirituality
 
  • Our spiritual life flavours the whole of life.
  • Holistic spirituality aims to take the whole person into account.
  • An holistic Christian spirituality is developmental, experiential, integrated and transpersonal.
 Part 8: Awareness and Knowledge
 
  • Self-awareness opens the way to knowledge of self, others and God.
  • Authenticity and truth are fundamental for living genuine human lives.
  • Spiritual development needs to take place in order that the person reach his or her full potential.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 37Exploring Church
 Part 1: The Church and Images
 
  • Sacred images are more than definitions because they direct us towards mystery.
  • Images of the Church allow us to explore the meaning and mystery of Church.
 Part 2: The Mystery of the Church
 
  • The word ‘mystery’, has many meanings.
  • The mystery of God is how and why God shares divine love and life with human beings.
  • Jesus reveals the mystery of God’s love and what it is to be truly human.
  • With the power of the Holy Spirit, the Church continues Jesus’ work.
 Part 3: The Church as the People of God
 
  • Christian faith is about making a free, personal response as well as belonging to the community of God’s people.
  • The image of the People of God begins in the Old Testament and continues to develop in the New Testament.
  • The Second Vatican Council emphasised that all the People of God are called to holiness and to the mission of spreading Christ’s Gospel.
 Part 4: The Church as Herald
 
  • Traditions can change over time but Tradition, as used by the Church, is the essential faith from the apostles and remains unchanging.
  • The Church acts as the Herald of the Good News.
  • Authentic Christian Tradition is discerned by a council of bishops and the pope.
  • All members of the Church share in the apostolic mission to spread the Good News.
 Part 5: The Church as Servant
 
  • The image of the Church as Servant comes directly from Jesus’ words and actions recorded in the gospels.
  • Ministry in the Church includes the ordained ministers and the laity.
  • The Church’s ministry extends to the secular world.
 Part 6: The Church as Universal
 
  • The Church is Catholic because of the presence of Christ and the mission to share the Gospel.
  • The unity of the Church can be expressed in a diversity of ways.
  • Inculturation is an important process in Australia’s multicultural society.
 Part 7: The Church as Sacrament
 
  • The Church is a visible sign of communion with God and of unity among people.
  • The Church and individual Christians are called to work for the continuing growth of God’s kingdom.
  • Young people are challenged to be the Church of today and the future.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 38Jesus – Face of God
 Part 1: Jesus, the Encounter with God, the Encounter with Self – ‘Come and you will see’ – John 1:3
 
  • Knowing God, through faith, is much more like knowing yourself than it is like knowing facts about things.
  • Faith is a life-long journey, not a one-off event or a possession.
  • Jesus is everything we need and can know of God.
 Part 2: Jesus, the Parable of God – ‘The time has come …’ – Mark 1:15
 
  • The little that is known about the world in which Jesus lived, and which shaped the kind of person he was, is helpful in giving us a better understanding of what he said, what he did, what happened to him, and who he was.
  • The whole of Jesus’ message is parabolic. It is about enabling us to change our minds, our whole way of thinking and seeing the world, ourselves, and everything else, including God.
 Part 3: Jesus, the Reign of God in Person – ‘… the kingdom of God is upon you …’ – Mark 1:15
 
  • The kingdom of God is not a place beyond this world, but a way of being in the world that radically transforms this world.
  • The good news that Jesus proclaimed was about the kingdom; but he did not just preach about the kingdom of God, he was – and is – the very embodiment of the kingdom of God.
 Part 4: Jesus, the Word of God in Action – ‘… change …’ – Mark 1:15
 
  • God’s word is alive and active in the person of Jesus.
  • The words and actions of Jesus form a single reality.
  • To understand Jesus’ words and actions we have to go beyond both magical thinking and gross materialism.
 Part 5: Jesus, the Holy One of God – ‘… and trust in the good news …’ – Mark 1:15
 
  • The role of sacrifice in human society was a way of managing violence violently.
  • The death of Jesus is the reversal and subversion of human sacrifice from within.
  • Jesus reveals the meaning of the saying that God does not seek sacrifice, but mercy and justice.
 Part 6: Jesus, the Son of God – ‘They will look on the one whom they have pierced’ – John 19:37
 
  • The resurrection of Jesus is about the renewal of all creation.
  • Eternal life is not about an afterlife but about life here, now and forever transformed.
 Part 7: Jesus, the Sacrament of God – ‘No longer ‘I’, but ‘Christ’ who lives in me’ – Galatians 2:20
 
  • As Christ is the Sacrament of God, so the Church is a Sacrament of Christ.
  • The New Testament, together with the Old Testament, is the basis of the Church’s developing doctrine and the source of its ongoing Tradition.
  • The most basic Christian doctrine about Jesus is that he is both fully human and fully divine.
  • The early Church not only wrote the New Testament, and read the ancient Jewish Scriptures in a new way, they also gathered regularly to pray and ponder the mystery of their faith in what came to be called the Liturgy.
  • The Church is that movement and body in history and the world that lives by the Spirit of Jesus, who alone is one, holy, catholic and apostolic in the fullest sense of those words.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 39 Mother of God – Mother of the Church
 Part 1: ‘Daughter of Zion’ – Woman of Her Time
 
  • Mary was probably born in Galilee at Nazareth.
  • By studying the position of Hebrew women in first-century Israel, it is possible to learn about Mary’s life.
 Part 2: Let It Be According to Your Word
 
  • In the light of Pentecost, the first Christians focused their theological reflection on the person of Christ and the significance of his mission.
  • As they deepened their understanding of Jesus, the early Christian communities began to ask questions about Mary, and the significance of her role.
  • Mary appears in all four gospels, according to the distinctive theological preoccupations of each of the four evangelists.
 Part 3: Of Her Was Born Jesus…
 
  • The Gospel of Matthew portrays Mary as having a special role in salvation history.
  • The Gospel of Luke portrays Mary as a true disciple.
 Part 4: Do Whatever He Tells You
 
  • The Gospel of John is a richly symbolic, poetic drama that contains seven key signs.
  • The first of these signs was given at a wedding feast in a Galilean town called Cana.
  • The Cana story tells us much about the mother of Jesus as a feminine icon of humanity.
 Part 5: Behold, your Mother
 
  • John is the only gospel writer to include the mother of Jesus at the crucifixion.
  • John portrays the mother of Jesus and the disciple whom Jesus loved as the first recipients of his mission.
 Part 6: Theotokos – Mother of God
 
  • Mary is truly Theotokos, which literally means ‘God-bearer’, but is usually translated as Mother of God.
  • The doctrine of the Theotokos is more about Jesus than it is about Mary: it affirms that Jesus is at one and the same time both human and divine, the God-Man, as opposed to being two things: a god and a man.
  • Mary is mother of God because Jesus is God; she is not mother of God with regard to the mystery of the Triune God of Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
 Part 7: Teachings about Mary
 
  • The Dogma of Mary’s Immaculate Conception should not be confused with the Dogma of her Virginal Conception of Jesus.
  • The Dogma of Mary’s Virginal Conception of Jesus means that Mary conceived Jesus in her womb, not by the intervention of a human father, but by the power of the Holy Spirit.
  • The Dogma of the Immaculate Conception tells us that from the first moment when Mary came into being as a person, she was free from original sin.
  • The Dogma of the Assumption of Mary, tells us that Mary was assumed body and soul into heaven at the end of her life.
 Part 8: All Generations Will Call Me Blessed
 
  • The way Mary has been imaged by Christians has varied down through the ages according to a variety of influences.
  • There have been some constants in the Christian Tradition, which have set certain broad parameters within which Christians have depicted Mary.
  • Mary is honoured in Islam as the virgin mother of the ‘Prophet Jesus’.
 Part 9: Mary in the Australian Church
 
  • Mary, under the title of Mary Help of Christians, is the patroness of Australia.
  • Our Lady of the Southern Cross, Help of Christians, was patroness of WYD Sydney 2008.
 Part 10: A Model for Our Times
 
  • The Second Vatican Council placed Mary within the mystery of the Church.
  • Mary is the first of Christ’s disciples and stands as a model for both women and men.
  • Mary challenges all disciples of Christ to live the Gospel message of justice, love and peace.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 40Australian Aboriginal Spirituality
 Part 1: Do Australians have a National Identity?
 
  • For the Aboriginal people, the emerging Australian national self-awareness is inextricably linked to their spirituality.
 Part 2: Does the Ancient Religion of our Indigenous People have anything to offer us today?
 
  • For Aboriginal people there is no division between the sacred and the secular because all aspects of life are sacred.
  • The created world is where we are called to come to know and live out the life God has given us in harmony with all people.
  • For true reconciliation to take place between non-indigenous Australians and Aboriginal people, we all need to come to an understanding of Aboriginal spirituality as the very essence of our identity.
  • We need to see the presence of God in all of Australia’s history and to recognise who we are today, people formed from all that has gone before us.
 Part 3: What is Central to Aboriginal Spirituality?
 
  • What is Central to Aboriginal Spirituality?
 Part 4: What are the Characteristics of Traditional Aboriginal Religion?
 
  • Aboriginal sacred stories of the Dreaming often explained the origin of the universe and everything in it – they formed the framework by which Aboriginal people made sense of the world.
  • Aboriginal people never used a written language to pass on Dreaming stories – individuals ‘owned’ myths according to their totems, and it was their responsibility to see that the stories were kept alive and passed on to the proper persons.
  • Traditionally, teachers of Aboriginal religion would be elders in the community whose authority came from their relationship to totemic sites, their knowledge of their land and experience of life.
  • In Aboriginal religions there were many different kinds of rituals: rituals associated with birth, coming of age, death, and increase rituals to maintain the fertility and well-being of the lands and animals.
  • A number of objects were considered sacred to Aboriginal people.
  • Some places are considered to be sacred because they are believed to have been created and shaped into their particular forms during the Dreaming.
 Part 5: How did Aboriginal People live before European Occupation?
 
  • The Aboriginal people in Australia show evidence of having lived together in a continuous and peaceful life for thousands of years.
  • The traditional Aboriginal people were hunter-gatherers who lived as extended families in harmony with the land.
 Part 6: What was the Impact of European Occupation?
 
  • Rather than being seen as fellow human beings but with a different understanding of life, different values and a different way of living, the Aboriginal people were judged to be ‘primitive’, with its connotations of inequality.
  • The impression of the early Europeans towards the Aboriginal people varied.
  • As the early settlers pushed the Aboriginal people further and further from their own lands, they lost their life as they had known it, and the culture that was bound to the land.
  • Archbishop Polding continued unsuccessfully to speak out fearlessly about the moral obligation Australia, and the Church in particular, were under to restore the dignity and rights of Aboriginal people
 Part 7: What Policies had an Impact upon the Life of Aboriginal People?
 
  • Many problems resulted from the reserves and mission, as the traditional ways of the Aboriginal people were gradually destroyed.
  • From 1915, the policy of removing Aboriginal and part-Aboriginal children from their homes to be fostered by white families or raised in institutions was instigated.
  • The aftermath of the 1967 Referendum witnessed the gradual integration of Aboriginal people into Australian society.
  • New South Wales, the first state to do so, established the Aboriginal Rights Act in 1983.
 Part 8: What are Contemporary Issues?
 
  • Life expectancy, health, imprisonment and deaths in custody are contemporary issues for Aboriginal people.
  • As an official policy, between 1915 and into the 1970s, children could be removed from their families and placed in institutions and foster homes, where they were ‘given a good environment and a good education’.
  • The forced removal of Aboriginal children from their families have had serious detrimental consequences.
  • In recent years, the Australian Government has begun to address the issue of Aboriginal land rights in court.
  • The national apology in 2008 was a significant and defining event in Australia’s history.
 Part 9: How have Indigenous People Contributed to Past and Present Australia?
 
  • After two centuries of subordination, paternalism, mistreatment, disdain and worse, Aboriginal people are now taking pride in a new self-identity.
  • There are numerous Aboriginal people who have and continue to make important contributions to Australian society and culture.
 Part 10: What does Aboriginal Spirituality have to offer Australia?
 
  • What does Aboriginal Spirituality have to offer Australia?
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 41Ethical Values
 Part 1: The Foundational Value
 
  • The fact that sense can be made of the world and human life is the basis of the foundational value – the value upon which, all others are built.
  • The human person is of ultimate value – not the means to an end – but an end in him / herself.
  • We can know God by examining the world and the human person.
  • An ethical system is based on the knowledge of the existence of God.
 Part 2: Objective Values
 
  • Objective values exist which consist of positive and negative values.
  • Values lead to actions which direct us towards God or away from God.
  • A moral system is based on these values.
 Part 3: Self and Self Love
 
  • The human person has infinite dignity, therefore the dignity of my own self, my own person, is first among essential values.
  • A person’s first moral task is to love themselves.
  • The human person has a strong capacity to know and love the truth.
  • We cannot love others unless we first love ourselves.
 Part 4: Conflicting Values
 
  • At any given time, values can conflict with each other.
  • Steps need to be taken to see if some change can be made to the situation in order to remove the conflict.
  • When it is not possible to remove a conflict of values, the action with the least harm to one’s own values and beliefs should be chosen.
 Part 5: Threats to the Self
 
  • Untruthfulness creates a split between what we are and what we claim to be.
  • Lack of respect for the body damages or destroys our power to respond to the demands of life intelligently and freely.
  • Enslavement to objects reduces us to the level of mere things or objects.
 Part 6: Others – Our Neighbours
 
  • Selfishness and self-centredness destroy our dignity.
  • Our own personal integrity leads us to see the personal integrity of others.
  • God created us to exist with others and for others.
 Part 7: Self Defence and Capital Punishment
 
  • The human person has the right to defend him / herself from acts of violence by using only the necessary force to do so.
  • Capital Punishment is unacceptable ‘because it is an attack on the inviolability and dignity of the person’ – Catechism of the Catholic Church, #2267
 Part 8: Bioethics
 
  • Human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception – Catechism of the Catholic Church, #2270
  • Whatever its motives and means, direct euthanasia consists in putting an end to the lives of handicapped, sick or dying persons – Catechism of the Catholic Church, #2277
  • Even if death is thought imminent, the ordinary care owed to a sick person cannot be legitimately interrupted – Catechism of the Catholic Church, #2279
 Part 9: Material Goods, Education and Culture
 
  • Every person has the right to access the basic resources that are necessary for living a fully human life, and these include material goods and possessions.
  • Every person has the right to access education, training and information that help them to participate effectively in society.
  • Governments have a social obligation to make education, training and information available to its citizens, and the forms these will take depends on the complexity of their society and culture.
 Part 10: The Good of All
 
  • Few rights are absolute; they are conditional on the value that they serve us all.
  • The wealthy need to share methods of producing wealth with the poor.
  • The human person has ‘the right not to be manipulated by technology for either scientific or economic purposes.
  • The human person needs to be prepared for creative employment and enjoyment of large amounts of leisure time.
 Part 11: Capability and Responsibility
 
  • Our human task is to create and fashion a genuine self. We alone are responsible for this and we have the right to exercise our own responsibility … unless there is compelling … evidence … which indicates we are either … infantile or senile – Dwyer, 1987, p.128
  • At all stages of our mature adult lives, we have the right to freedom of conscience – Dwyer, 1987, p.129
  • The right to a stand-in is based on the fact that we are social animals and that we bear real responsibility for each other – Dwyer, 1987, p.130
 Part 12: Creating a Human and Humane Society
 
  • The creation of a human and humane society is properly the responsibility of the human being, and no one, and certainly not the government, has the right to pre-empt that responsibility – Dwyer, 1987, p.134
  • In order to create such a society the human person has the rights of ‘freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom of the press’ – Dwyer, 1987, p.134
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 42Ethical Issues
 Part 1: Bioethics: To Live Life to the Full
 
  • Advances in biomedical technology have made a significant contribution to people’s quality of life and have raised many ethical and moral dilemmas.
  • The purpose of ethics is to establish which forms of behaviour are humanising and which are not.
  • Christian ethics is based on the conviction that human beings are loved and made in the image and likeness of God who is life-giving love.
 Part 2: Bioethics: Loved into Being
 
  • The Catholic tradition holds respect for human life as an absolute value.
  • Human nature is to be ‘the image and likeness of God’.
  • A theologically informed teaching on bioethics combines faith and reason.
 Part 3: Bioethics: Making Babies or Giving Life?
 
  • The ability to conceive is a gift from God, jointly shared by husband and wife.
  • Infertility often has terrible emotional consequences for the couple, whose hopes and dreams appear to have been shattered.
  • Rapid and extensive advancements in medical research have led to the availability of artificial methods of reproduction and to legal and moral considerations.
 Part 4: Bioethics: Entering the Body’s Grace
 
  • Over the centuries, the Church has always turned to the absolute moral principle that human beings are created as the image and likeness of God.
  • The Catholic Church has responded to new reproductive technologies in two major documents:
    • Donum Vitae which addresses new reproductive technologies on the basis of the dignity of the child and the dignity of the marriage relationship.
    • Dignitatis Personae which addresses specific developments in biomedicine occurring after Donum Vitae, i.e. research on human embryos, use of stem cells for therapeutic purposes, and other areas of experimental medicine.
 Part 5: Eco-Ethics: Crisis and Opportunity
 
  • Diverse issues contribute to the brokenness of creation.
  • The modern attitude towards creation reflects a fundamental rupture in relationships.
 Part 6: Eco-Ethics: Creation Myth or Parable?
 
  • Science and history are about knowledge; and the basic questions they ask are ‘what, how and when?’ Philosophy is about wisdom, and asks ‘why?’ Theology is about God: it asks all the other questions and adds: ‘who?’
  • Creation stories or cosmologies are attempts to understand the world and our place in it.
  • Love of nature and concern for the environment, have deep roots in Christian tradition.
 Part 7: Eco-Spirituality: The Fullness of Creation
 
  • Through the incarnation, death and resurrection of Jesus the Christ, the whole of creation is re-created and reconciled to God.
  • As images of God, each of us is called to play our own role in the unfolding story of creation.
  • Particular issues contributing to the ecological crisis challenge us to unite our efforts with those who care for the universe.
 Part 8: Media: In the Service of Communion
 
  • As ‘herald of good news’ the Church is itself deeply involved in the communications media, and is among the oldest and most prolific ‘global media outlets’ the world has ever known.
  • The communications media is a great gift that can serve the deeper vision of communication as a way towards communion.
  • The Church appreciates and values the contribution that communications media can make to human life and progress.
 Part 9: Media: Power to Influence
 
  • Social communications media are influenced and constrained, as well as influencing and constraining.
  • The electronic revolution has opened up the information superhighway.
  • Concern for the quality of life of all human beings in society raises many issues regarding the social communications media.
 Part 10: Media: Towards Freedom to Flourish
 
  • We have a right to ask the media to promote our flourishing as human beings, not our diminishing.
  • Freedom is a universal right, not just of the wealthy and the powerful.
  • The Church offers basic principles to guide the balancing of rights, freedoms and responsibilities.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 43Australian Aboriginal Beliefs and Spirituality – The Dreaming (SOR)
 Part 1: Overview
 
 Part 2: The Dreaming
 
  • The Dreaming is an ever-present reality which describes the formation of the world and everything in it.
  • There are many Aboriginal deities; some are regarded as supreme creator beings, others are regarded as ancestral beings.
  • Dreaming mythologies of the many different Aboriginal tribes are variations on a common theme.
 Part 3: Sacred Stories
 
  • Aboriginal sacred stories of the Dreaming often explained the origin of the universe and everything in it – they formed the framework by which Aboriginal people made sense of the world.
  • Aboriginal people never used a written language to pass on Dreaming stories – individuals ‘owned’ myths according to their totems, and it was their responsibility to see that the stories were kept alive and passed on to the proper persons.
  • Aboriginal sacred stories exhibit a common theme as well as variations.
    • Rainbow Serpent
    • Baiame and the Rainbow Snake
    • The Father of All Spirits and the Sun Mother
    • Variations
    • The First Sunrise
    • How the Sun Came To Be
    • How the Sun Was Made
    • How the Moon Came To Be
    • Lyrebird the Mimic
    • Baiame and Creation
 Part 4: Sacred Sites – Reminder of the Dreaming
 
  • Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people believe their sacred sites were created and shaped into their particular forms during the Dreaming and demonstrate imprints and physical proof of the actions of ancestral beings.
  • Sacred sites are places for ritual and ceremony.
  • Aboriginal people believe that the power of ancestral spirits is present at these sites, making them forever sacred.
    • The Three Sisters
    • Uluru
    • Kata Tjuta
    • Nambung and Kakadu National Parks
    • Dreaming Tracks and Bora Grounds
    • Burial Sites
 Part 5: Symbols and Art – Expressions of the Dreaming
 
  • Symbols and artworks played a central role in communication, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people employed a system of symbols that was at once simple and sophisticated.
  • Traditional art usually depicted the Aboriginal bond with the land and the activities of ancestral beings, as well as religious beliefs and sacred stories from the Dreaming.
  • Australia’s indigenous people were creative in terms of finding and using appropriate media and readily available pigments.
 Part 6: Connection of the Dreaming, the Land and Identity
 
  • To understand the connection of the Dreaming, the land and identity of Aboriginal people, it is necessary to examine how creation came into being and how it is sustained from an anthropological point of view.
  • The land and all creation is an embodiment of the living presence of ancestral beings.
  • Birthplace, ancestor beings, totems, biological heritage and kinship connect Aboriginal people to the Dreaming and give rise to personal and social identity.
  • Traditional Aboriginal people’s connection to the land through the Dreaming has a profound influence on their understanding of themselves and the land.
 Part 7: Importance of the Dreaming in the Lives of Aboriginal People
 
  • The Dreaming is at the heart of Aboriginal beliefs and spirituality and provides answers to questions of existence.
  • Sacred sites, symbols and art provide Aboriginal people with connections to spiritual well-being.
  • The Dreaming provides Aboriginal people with a source of identity and belonging, as well as explaining why things are the way they are – status quo.
 Part 8: Kinship – Living the Dreaming
 
  • Kinship is the single most important means of organising and regulating social and spiritual relationships.
  • The classificatory system provides a simple and transparent framework for enforcing rules and regulations.
  • The highest kinship level is that of the tribe or nation, followed by totemic groups, clans and moieties.
  • Specific rules relating to marriage vary from tribe to tribe, but commonly revolve around subdivisions within the tribe known as sections or skin-names.
 Part 9: Ceremonies – Remembering the Dreaming
 
  • Ceremonies occupy an important place in Aboriginal life by providing access to the spiritual world and perpetuating the Dreaming.
  • Many types of rituals continue to be used in traditional Aboriginal language groups and are usually associated with birth, coming of age, death, and fertility.
  • Sacred objects, songs, music and dance connect traditional Aboriginal people to the Dreaming.
 Part 10: Obligations to Land and People – Honouring the Dreaming
 
  • The Dreaming proposes that all human beings, as well as the land and all it sustains, were created by ancestral beings during the time of creation.
  • Each person is a custodian of the land and all it sustains, and is responsible for renewing flora and fauna according to customary laws.
  • The principle of reciprocity is the fundamental principle governing one’s obligations to other people within Aboriginal society and applies to the exchange of goods, services, favours and obligations.
 Part 11: Effects of Dispossession on Aboriginal Spirituality
 
  • The separation of Aboriginal people from their land, systematic disintegration of the kinship system, and forced removal of Aboriginal children from their families, have had profound and devastating effects on Aboriginal spirituality.
  • Aboriginal people are connected to the land both geographically and spiritually and dispossession is akin to the destruction of their spirituality – the very means by which they achieve social cohesion and meaning in life.
  • Loss of identity, heritage, traditions and rituals have separated Aboriginal people from the Dreaming and heart of their spirituality and forced them to search for a new place in a foreign culture, where many are no longer able to draw on their rich spiritual heritage to provide the stability and social cohesion needed to cope with rapid and constant change.
 Part 12: Land Rights – Reclaiming the Dreaming
 
  • In Australia, the land rights movement is the struggle to reclaim the lands and Dreaming from which Aboriginal people have been dispossessed, making the movement both political and spiritual.
  • Aspects of native title have been addressed legally by the Mabo Case, Native Title Act 1993, Wik decision and the 2019 High Court Compensation Decision.
  • Considerable work remains in reclaiming Aboriginal land and sovereignty and until then the Dreaming can never fully be reclaimed.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 44Religious Expressions in Australia – 1945 to the Present (SOR)
 Part 1: Overview
 
 Part 2: Rise of Religious Diversity
 
  • As a result of the White Australia Policy, Australia was predominantly an Anglo-Celtic society by the end of World War II.
  • By the turn of the twentieth century, Australia had a rich diversity of religious traditions and Christian denominations.
  • Census figures from 1947 to 1996 indicate an overall decrease in the number of people professing to be Christian and an overall increase in the number of people reporting no religion.
 Part 3: From Religious Diversity to Multi-Faith Society
 
  • Since World War II, religious diversity in Australia has widened to include a range of Christian denominations and all major religious traditions.
  • Multi-faith Australia presents challenges to social cohesiveness as people of diverse religious backgrounds have to live together in peace.
  • A constructive way of meeting these challenges is to recognise and affirm what we have in common and respect differences or particularities.
 Part 4: Factors Contributing to the Present Religious Landscape in Australia
 
  • Australia’s link to Christian Britain and its development as a British colony laid the foundations for Christianity developing as the major religious tradition in this country.
  • Net overseas migration has had a significant impact on religious affiliation, particularly since 2008 when the rate of growth due to net overseas migration exceeded the growth rate due to natural increase.
  • Denominational switching reflects the relatively low priority switchers place on denominational loyalty and their preparedness to leave and join other Protestant churches if or when they become unhappy with their experience of church.
 Part 5: New Age Religions and Secularism in Australia’s Religious Landscape
 
  • New Age religions are a combination of ideologies, theologies and philosophies that embrace universal tolerance and moral relativism.
  • New Age religions are a product of the late 1960s and 1970s and have provided a spiritual response to the increasing level of secularism.
  • The rise of secularism is reflected in the increasing proportion of people claiming to have no religion.
 Part 6: Interfaith Dialogue in Multi-Faith Australia
 
  • Because religions are embedded in cultures, Australia’s religious leaders face the urgent and important task of establishing positive relationships among all religions, so that multicultural Australia remains a peaceful and harmonious society.
  • Interfaith dialogue spread with Nostra Aetate’s recognition of the Spirit of God at work in other religious traditions.
  • Australia’s interfaith organisations work to achieve religious and ethnic harmony at various levels of interfaith dialogue with goodwill and commitment and an attitude of genuine openness.
 Part 7: Ecumenical Movements within Christianity
 
  • The National Council of Churches in Australia (NCCA) was established to look for ways in which Christian churches could both express their unity in Christ and proclaim the Gospel within the contemporary Australian context.
  • The New South Wales Ecumenical Council (NSWEC) was established to assist Christian churches to fulfil their common mission.
 Part 8: Aboriginal Spiritualities and Religious Traditions in a Reconciliation Process
 
  • Australia’s Christian leaders need to resolve a number of issues in order for the churches to be reconciled with the Aboriginal people.
  • Christian churches are actively involved in promoting Aboriginal reconciliation, both at an individual and an ecumenical level.
  • Of the other religious traditions, the Jewish community has arguably played the most prominent role in Aboriginal reconciliation.
 Summary
 Glossary
Unit 45Religious Traditions Depth Studies – Christianity (SOR)
 Part 1: Overview
 
  • Significant people and schools of thought have contributed to the development and expression of Christianity.
 Part 2: Significant People – Paul of Tarsus
 Part 3: Significant People – Augustine of Hippo
 Part 4: Significant People – Hildegard of Bingen
 Part 5: Significant People – Thomas Aquinas
 Part 6: Significant People – Martin Luther
 Part 7: Significant People – Catherine Booth
 Part 8: Significant People – Saint Pope John XXIII
 Part 9: Significant Schools of Thought
 
  • Liberation Theology
 Part 10: Ethical Issues in Christianity – Bioethics
 
  • Christian ethical teachings on bioethics are based on four core beliefs concerning the sacredness of human life.
  • From the core beliefs, come a number of bioethical principles to which all mainstream denominations subscribe.
  • Application of bioethical principles to specific situations is governed by a set of bioethical rules.
  • These rules vary among the Christian denominations.
 Part 11: Ethical Issues in Christianity – Environmental Ethics
 
  • Environmental ethics is a recent development within Christianity and other religious traditions – it is a sign of our times.
  • Christian environmental ethics is based on certain fundamental beliefs about God, the human person and creation.
  • Principles stemming from these beliefs determine a Christian approach to the environment.
 Part 12: Ethical Issues in Christianity – Sexual Ethics
 
  • The Scriptures are an authoritative source for Christian sexual ethics with some denominations also sourcing natural law and Church Tradition.
  • A description and explanation of Christian sexual ethics needs to include beliefs, commandments and principles.
  • Particular Christian responses to sexual issues vary, but all are based on the dignity of each person and the sacredness of life.
 Part 13: Significant Christian Practices – Baptism
 
  • Baptism is a significant Christian practice by which a person is welcomed into the Christian community by means of a sacrament or a symbolic ceremony.
  • Christian beliefs are expressed through the actions, words spoken and symbols of the baptismal ceremony.
  • Baptism is significant for individual Christians by uniting them to Christ and his Church, and for the Christian Community by promoting its beliefs and mission.
 Part 14: Significant Christian Practices – Marriage Ceremony
 
  • A description of the Christian marriage ceremony as a significant practice in Christianity includes time, place, participants, ritual structure and the particular rites of the churches.
  • The Christian marriage ceremony expresses Christian beliefs through the words and symbolic actions used.
  • Significance of the Christian marriage ceremony for the individual involves all aspects of a life-long commitment to another person that are life-giving, love-giving and self-giving.
  • The Christian marriage ceremony is significant for the Christian community in that it initiates the couple into the rights, responsibilities and privileges of the Christian community.
 Part 15: Significant Christian Practices – Saturday / Sunday Worship
 
  • Christian Saturday / Sunday worship has its origins in the Jewish Sabbath; it is Christian public worship and celebrates Christianity’s foundational belief that Christ is risen and will come again.
  • Christian Saturday / Sunday worship, apart from Quakerism and the Salvation Army, is usually in the form of a memorial of the Last Supper, a Christian ritual during which the Scriptures are read and bread is broken and shared, and which varies across denominations.
  • Saturday / Sunday worship expresses Christian beliefs by:
    • marking the day of Christ’s resurrection
    • looking forward to our own resurrection and promise of eternal life with God
    • always proclaiming the Gospel
    • professing creeds
    • carrying out Jesus’ command to ‘do this in memory of me’
    • Saturday / Sunday worship has significance for the individual and the Christian community by providing opportunities for both experiencing a personal relationship with Christ and the public proclamation of the Gospel.
Unit 46Religious Traditions Depth Studies – Islam (SOR)
 Part 1: Overview
 
  • Significant people and schools of thought have contributed to the development and expression of Islam. Most have had a positive effect on the development and expression of Islam, though some continue to be detrimental.
 Part 2: Introduction and Significant People – Ahl al-Bayt
 
  • Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid
  • Fatima Al Zahra
  • A’isha Bint Abu Bakr
 Part 3: Significant People
 
  • Umayyad, Abbasid and Rival Caliphates
  • Imam Abu Hanifa
  • Imam Malik
  • Imam Al-Shafi
  • Rabi’a al-Adawiyya
  • Abu ali Hussein Ibn Sina
  • Al-Ghazali
 Part 4: Modern Extremist Islamic Thinkers
 
  • Sayyid Maududi
  • Sayyid Qutb
 Part 5: Significant Schools of Thought
 
  • Mut’tazila School of Theology
  • Ash’ari School of Theology
 Part 6: Ethical Issues in Islam – Bioethics
 
  • Islamic rulings on bioethical issues are derived from the interaction of Islamic religious law, bioethical and theological principles.
 Part 7: Ethical Issues in Islam – Environmental Ethics
 
  • Islamic rulings on environmental issues are derived from the interaction of Islamic religious law, ethical, environmental and theological principles.
 Part 8: Ethical Issues in Islam – Sexual Ethics
 
  • Islamic rulings on sexual issues are derived from the interaction of Islamic religious law, sexual ethics and theological principles.
 Part 9: Significant Islamic Practices – Funeral Ceremony
 
  • Rituals of Islamic funeral ceremonies follow Islamic religious law to express faith in God’s forgiveness and mercy, as well as belief in the resurrection of the body on the Day of Judgment.
 Part 10: Significant Islamic Practices – Hajj
 
  • The pilgrimage to Mecca, the fifth pillar of Islam, is of historical and religious significance for Muslims throughout the world.
  • Rituals associated with the hajj unite all Muslims around the core beliefs of Islam.
 Part 11: Significant Islamic Practices – Jumuah – Friday Prayer
 
  • Prayer, the second pillar of Islam, culminates with Jumuah, the Friday congregational prayer service.
  • The structure of Friday prayer and the practices involved express the beliefs of Islam for the individual and for the Muslim community.
Unit 47Religious Traditions Depth Studies – Judaism (SOR)
 Part 1: Overview
 
  • Significant people and schools of thought that have contributed to the development and expression of Judaism. The impact of these people and schools of thought has influenced the development and expression of Judaism at particular times in history and in specific ways.
 Part 2: Significant People – The Prophet Isaiah
 Part 3: Significant People – Rabbi Hillel
 Part 4: Significant People – Rabbi Solomon Isaac
 Part 5: Significant People – Rabbi Moses Ben Maimonides
 Part 6: Significant People – Rabbi Abraham Geiger
 Part 7: Significant Schools of Thought
 
  • Kabbalah
  • Hasidism
  • Jewish Feminism
 Part 8: Ethical Issues in Judaism – Bioethics
 
  • Common sources of Jewish bioethics are the TaNak, Talmud and Responsa and differences in bioethical rulings arise from the levels of authority given by the variants to these sacred writings.
  • Four bioethical principles are derived from eleven core values.
  • Specific bioethical issues include conception, abortion, in vitro fertilisation, contraception, palliative care, suicide and euthanasia.
 Part 9: Ethical Issues in Judaism – Environmental Ethics
 
  • Environmental ethics is a recent development within major religious traditions and a sign of our times.
  • The environmental principles that emerge from Jewish sacred writings include God is the Creator; human beings are God’s stewards; the law of Bal Tashhit and the imperative to work for the repair and restoration of the world, i.e. Tikkun Olam.
  • Ethics stemming from these principles determine a Jewish approach to the environment.
 Part 10: Ethical Issues in Judaism – Sexual Ethics
 
  • Jewish sexual ethics is based on the Covenant relationship between God and the Jewish people, and is sourced from the Torah, Talmud and Responsa.
  • Differences in ethical rulings occur when rabbis in the three variants assign varying levels of authority to each body of sacred writings.
  • Principles informing Jewish sexual ethics are dignity of human beings; marriage as a divine institution, and sexual intercourse as a means of attaining holiness.
  • Specific issues in Jewish sexual ethics include marriage, niddah, contraception, fornication and adultery, and homosexual relationships.
 Part 11: Significant Jewish Practices – Death and Mourning Services
 
  • Description of Jewish death and mourning practices comprises the:
    • concepts of death and mourning
    • process of death and mourning
    • practices before death, when death occurs and after death
    • stages of mourning.
  • Death and mourning practices, as expressions of Jewish beliefs, include beliefs about:
    • life and death
    • resurrection
    • mourning.
  • Death and mourning practices are significant for the Jewish individual:
    • by presenting a religious view of death
    • at the time of death
    • who is a mourner.
  • Death and mourning practices are significant for the Jewish community by:
    • fulfilling commandments
    • being community based
    • perpetuating the tradition and strengthening the community
    • being an experience of identity and a connection to history.
 Part 12: Significant Jewish Practices – Marriage Ceremony
 
  • Marriage is significant for the individual by providing him or her with completeness and wholeness, as well as providing specific roles for husband and wife. Marriage is significant for the Jewish community as the means of preserving its religious and cultural heritage.
 Part 13: Significant Jewish Practices – Synagogue Services
 
  • Description of synagogue services in Judaism comprises of:
    • the concept of the synagogue
    • the process of synagogue services
    • practices within the synagogue for:
      • daily services
      • weekly Shabbat
      • yearly holidays of Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur and Simkhat Torah.
  • Synagogue services express Jewish beliefs that God is:
    • One
    • One Who Reveals
    • One Who Creates
    • One Who Redeems.
  • Synagogue services are significant for the individual in the ways he or she responds to:
    • fulfilling the commandments
    • being involved in public worship
    • the opportunities to reflect on participation in the Tradition of Judaism
    • identifying with the community’s particular heritage
    • the path to holiness
    • opportunities to develop further an understanding of Jewish beliefs.
  • Synagogue services are significant for the Jewish community by allowing members to be involved in:
    • continuing and strengthening the religious tradition of Judaism
    • the public expression of their religious heritage
    • the continuation and strengthening of the Jewish Tradition
    • defining the community’s nature and purpose
    • connections to the past, present and the future
    • communal contact with the Divine
    • responding to society and culture.
Unit 48 Religion and Peace – Christianity (SOR)
 Part 1: Overview
 
  • The topic, Religion and Peace, in the Understanding Faith Resource, focuses on the characteristic responses of two world religious traditions – Christianity and Judaism – to the concept of peace. The topic is directed towards the syllabus requirements for the NSW Stage Six HSC Studies of Religion II. The syllabus states that TWO religious traditions are to be selected for integrated study in each of the following areas:
    • expression of peace in the sacred texts of the tradition
    • significant teachings about peace
    • the religious tradition’s contributions to inner peace of the individual
    • the religious tradition’s contributions to world peace.
 Part 2: Peace in the Christian Scripture
 
  • The Christian understanding of peace is living in unity with God and with other people.
  • The New Testament is the principal source of the belief and teachings about peace for Christian denominations.
    • Gospel of Luke
    • Gospels of Mark and Matthew
    • Gospel of John
    • Letters
  • The Christian teachings of peace are based on the message and mission of Jesus which includes forgiveness and a new life of love and peace.
    • Peace in the Gospels
    • The Challenges of Peace
    • Peace in the Letters
    • Peace for Early Christians
 Part 3: Christianity and Peace throughout History
 
  • Peace in the Middle Ages
  • Peace During the Reformation
  • Peace in the Modern World
 Part 4: How Christianity Guides the Individual to Achieve Inner Peace
 
  • Christianity guides the individual to the inner peace of loving God by following the:
    • First Precept – To ‘Love the Lord Your God’
      1. Knowing God Through Jesus
      2. Studying the Scriptures
      3. Prayer
      4. Communal Worship
  • The inner peace from loving your neighbour as yourself is attained by following the:
    • Second Precept – To ‘Love Your Neighbour as Yourself’
      1. Forgiving Yourself
      2. Expressing Gratitude
      3. Loving Your Neighbour as part of the kingdom of God.
 Part 5: How Christianity is Contributing to World Peace
 
  • Christianity is contributing to world peace through:
    1. Public Statements and the example of church leaders or church representatives
      • Catholic Church – Pope Francis
      • Former Popes
      • Religious Society of Friends
      • The World Council of Churches
      • Uniting Church of Australia
      • Australian Catholic Bishops’ Conference
    2. Work of Organisations to Achieve World Peace
      • Anglican Church and Catholic Church
      • Columban Centre for Peace, Ecology and Justice
      • Uniting Church and Seventh-Day Adventist Church
      • Religious Society of Friends
      • Mennonites and Orthodox Churches
      • World Council of Churches
      • National Council of Churches of Australia, Act for Peace and ACT Alliance
      • Network of Christian Peace Organisations
 Part 6: Individuals Who Contribute to World Peace
 
  • Pope Francis
  • Saint John Paul II
  • Dorothy Day
  • Nelson Mandela
 Part 7: Celebrations and Special Days to Commemorate World Peace
 
  • World Day of Peace
  • World Day of Prayer for Peace
  • International Day of Prayer for Peace
  • Global Day of Prayer
  • Day of Prayer For the Peace of Jerusalem
  • World Day of Prayer
 Glossary
Unit 49Religion and Peace – Judaism (SOR)
 Part 1: Overview
 
  • The topic, Religion and Peace, in the Understanding Faith Resource, focuses on the characteristic responses of two world religious traditions – Christianity and Judaism – to the concept of peace. The topic is directed towards the syllabus requirements for the NSW Stage Six HSC Studies of Religion II. The syllabus states that TWO religious traditions are to be selected for integrated study in each of the following areas:
    • expression of peace in the sacred texts of the tradition
    • significant teachings about peace
    • the religious tradition’s contributions to inner peace of the individual
    • the religious tradition’s contributions to world peace.
 Part 2: The Jewish Understanding of Peace
 
  • Living in unity with God and with other people.
 Part 3: How Peace is Informed through the Prophetic Vision
 
  • Found principally in the Nevi’im (Prophets) and also in other sections of the Tanakh.
 Part 4: The Jewish Teachings about Peace
 
  • The Jewish Teachings About Peace – are derived from the Tanakh, the Talmud and the writings of the sages. They include:
    • Peace in the Scriptures
    • Worshipping God
    • Justice
    • Equality Before the Law
    • Loving Kindness
    • Social Welfare
    • Challenges of Peace
 Part 5: How Judaism Guides the Individual to Inner Peace
 
  • Loving and experiencing the presence of God by following:
    • First Precept – To ‘Love the Lord Your God’
      • Studying the Tanakh and Talmud
      • Prayer
      • Practising Mitzvot
      • Communal Worship
    • The Second Precept – To ‘Love your Fellow (being) as Yourself’ – the inner peace from loving your fellow being as yourself is achieved by:
      • Forgiving Yourself and Others
      • Expressing Gratitude
      • Loving Others because the spirit and nature of God are reflected in every human person.
 Part 6: How Judaism is Contributing to World Peace
 
  • Public Statements by Jewish Leaders
  • Work of Organisations to Achieve World Peace
 Part 7: Efforts of Individuals Dedicated to World Peace
 
  • Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel
  • Henrietta Szold
  • Dr Chaim Peri
  • Rabbi Zalman Kastel
  • Eli Wiesel
 Part 8: Annual Celebrations, Special Days and Places to Commemorate World Peace
 
  • Annual Celebrations:
    • Freedom Seder
    • Yom Kippur
    • Mitzvah Day
  • Special Days:
    • The Commemoration of the Martin Place Siege
    • The Inauguration of Meals That Matter
    • Harmony Day
  • Special Places:
    • Yad Vashem
    • Holy Places in Jerusalem.
 Summary
 Glossary
Stage 6
Unit 50Who is a Human Person (SICT)
 Part 1: Contemporary Philosophies of Human Life
 
  • Non-religious or secular philosophies of life view human life, its meaning and purpose in the context of the temporal world.
  • Religious philosophies of life originate from within the limitations of this world, with a belief in a world to come, and view human life in the context of eternity.
  • ‘Secular humanism’ is a life philosophy that provides a response to the human search for meaning and purpose in life which does not include God, and focuses on the human being and his or her capacity to achieve fulfilment in this life.
  • Existentialism focuses on the existence of the individual as free and responsible in determining his or her own development and emphasises the role of choice and personal decision making.
  • A person’s belief in God leads to a life philosophy which embraces a worldview that is significantly different to non-religious worldviews.
 Part 2: Philosophers of Ancient Greece
 
  • Socrates, Plato and Aristotle lived in Athens during a time of political instability but also of cultural vibrancy.
  • According to Socrates, the highest good is human happiness, and knowledge or intelligence is the means of attaining happiness.
  • Plato’s contribution to philosophy includes the theory of forms, the theory of knowledge, the theory of the soul and the theory of love.
  • Aristotle’s contribution to philosophy includes the theory of forms, the principle of the four causes, the theory of the soul and the theory of the unmoved mover.
  • Plato and Aristotle took existing ideas about the soul to another level by systematically theorising about them.
  • The human person is both a physical body and a spiritual soul, and each is created for a purpose, to establish a relationship with God here on earth and live forever with God in eternity.
 Part 3: Human and in Relationship
 
  • The story of creation in Genesis reveals God as a generous loving creator who makes all of creation good.
  • God’s love and goodness are especially revealed in human beings and highlight the special place human beings have in all creation.
  • Catholic teaching on the dignity of the human person is drawn from Scripture and the Church’s Tradition.
  • The human person is not just one among many creatures, but a person called to share in the very life of God.
  • The special dignity that human beings possess makes them unique in all creation.
  • Freedom plays a fundamental role in the life of a human being.
  • Christian faith motivates a person to help others, because the Christian sees the face of Jesus in the other person.
  • Sexuality affects all aspects of the human person in the unity of their body and soul. It especially concerns affectivity, the capacity to love and to procreate, and in a more general way the aptitude for forming bonds of communion with others.
  • The media is often used to spread distorted and untrue ideas about sex and sexuality, which degrade rather than enhance our human dignity.
  • While the media does not set out to promote sex, the way that sex is portrayed in the media tends to trivialise it.
  • Chastity is the virtue that directs our sexual desires and attitudes toward the truth of love.
  • Genesis 2:4-4:16 is a radically honest story about the human condition – sometimes scandalously honest.
 Part 4: A Covenantal Relationship
 
  • ‘Covenant’ is a seed-concept of ‘divinisation’, Christianity’s key anthropological teaching.
  • God’s covenant with Noah was a covenant of righteousness with humankind, established as a result of Noah’s faith and obedience.
  • Although God established the covenant with the Hebrew people (later known as Israelites) through Abraham, the promises of that covenant would in time be extended to all humanity, as had always been God’s intention.
  • The exodus is the story of how Moses led his people from slavery in Egypt to freedom in the Promised Land. From a theological point of view, the exodus represents our spiritual journey from the slavery of sin to freedom in Christ.
  • The most significant event of the Exodus journey took place at Mount Sinai when God called Moses to the top of the mountain to renew the covenant.
  • Torah is the pattern of the world as God desires the world to be.
  • The laws and commandments in the Old Testament are the basis of western ethics.
  • Ethics is about living life justly, compassionately and rightly, so as to flourish according to our human nature.
  • God’s promise to King David is realised with the coming of Jesus.
  • While created good and created for God, humanity is deeply wounded and in need of healing.
  • When Israel failed to live by the Torah, God sent prophets to call the people back to the way of justice.
  • The Prophets were people who spoke God’s word of truth and called the people to return to God.
 Part 5: Who Do You Say I Am?
 
  • Jesus Christ is fully God and fully human. Christians believe that Jesus of Nazareth is the full and complete human manifestation of a loving God.
  • The earliest Christian images that we have, were painted on the walls of the catacombs.
  • Early paintings and inscriptions provide valuable information about how the early Christians portrayed Jesus.
  • After Christianity became the official religion of the Empire churches, basilicas and cathedrals were decorated with beautiful Christian artworks, and artists began to emphasise the kingship of Christ.
  • Depictions of Jesus as the divine king and ruler continued into the medieval period, but as we approach the sixteenth century artistic representations of Jesus, although still emphasising Jesus’ divinity, become more realistic.
  • After the Renaissance the humanity of Jesus was given significantly more emphasis in art.
  • In modern art the tendency is still to emphasise Jesus’ humanity, and Christ is depicted as a wise, thoughtful and loving man.
  • Every artist who has attempted to answer the question asked by Christ, ‘Who do you say I am?’ will arrive at their own unique representation of Jesus.
 Part 6: The Incarnation
 
  • God call us – personally, by name, as God called, ‘Moses! Moses!’ as if he were saying, ‘my son, my son.’
  • The story of Jesus is really the story of God made present, visible, and revealing us to ourselves and God among us.
  • The Gospel begins with a poem about the incarnation, and presents the whole of John’s theology in summary.
  • We are all invited to enter fully into communion with God, become one-with-God, just as Jesus is one-with-God.
  • Jesus offers us the same living waters he offered the Samaritan woman that day at the Well of Jacob.
  • The Eucharist is at the heart of what Jesus is, does and says. It brings it all together, here and now, in the ordinary, everyday stuff of life: bread, the symbol of ordinary life, and wine, the symbol of simple joy.
  • God’s word is alive and active in the person of Jesus.
  • The words and actions of Jesus form a single reality.
  • The Eucharist is a sacrament unlike any of the other sacraments; it is a sacrament of the Church.
  • The institution of the Eucharist is of decisive importance for the foundation of the Church, and for understanding Jesus as mediator of salvation.
  • All the other sacraments find their ultimate meaning in the Eucharist and are directed towards the Eucharist, because in this sacrament we receive the real Body and Blood of Christ.
  • We, the Body of Christ, are a new creation, because we have been reconciled and reunited with God.
  • Jesus modelled true greatness through loving service of others, and in doing so he is the model for Christian life.
 Part 7: Revealing the Faith: The Message of Saint Paul
 
  • Paul of Tarsus is probably the most influential follower of Jesus of all time.
  • Faith in the crucified and risen Jesus is the heart of Paul’s message.
  • Paul did not write a gospel, or a systematic work of theology, but letters to specific churches and individuals, in which he articulated the practical implications of faith in ChristPaul did not write a gospel, or a systematic work of theology, but letters to specific churches and individuals.
  • The Church is that movement and body in history and the world that lives by the Spirit of Jesus, who alone is one, holy, catholic and apostolic in the fullest sense of those words.
Unit 51Trinitarian God and Humanity (SICT)
 Part 1: The Nature of Jesus
 
  • The early Christians were concerned with reconciling the person and nature of Christ and the Trinitarian nature of God with their understanding and belief that God is one God.
  • Errors arose within the Church because some theologians settled for one teaching at the expense of the other.
  • Doctrinal errors gave rise to heresies, such as Monarchianism, Arianism, Gnosticism, Docetism and Nestorianism.
  • The New Testament does not give us a systematic treatise of the nature of Christ, but the narrative regarding the nature of Jesus is extensive and enabled the early Church Fathers to reconcile the person and nature of Christ and the Trinitarian nature of God with their understanding and belief that God is one God.
  • The teachings put forward by proponents of Arianism and Gnosticism are incompatible with the teachings of the Church, and differ significantly from and even contradict Scripture.
 Part 2: Emergence of Church Councils
 
  • The divisions and conflicts caused by heresies evolved in a cultural context in which the unity of the Church was already fragile.
  • Constantine, aware that the unity of the empire necessitated Church unity, stepped in amid the escalating conflict, calling the council of Nicaea, which convened with over 300 bishops in 325 CE, but the bishops did not fully resolve the Trinitarian issue.
  • The divinity of the Holy Spirit was affirmed by the council of Constantinople in 381 CE.
  • The council of Ephesus which convened in 431 CE affirmed the Nicene faith, but did not bring about the unity Emperor Theodosius had hoped for.
  • The council of Chalcedon confirmed that there were two distinct natures in Christ, and granted privileges to the see of Constantinople equal to that of Rome.
  • A tentative state of peace and unity was achieved after 515 CE when Pope Harmisdas issued a libellus, which demanded that all the churches accepted the supreme authority of the see of Rome and its doctrine, and that all non-Chalcedonian supporters be excommunicated.
 Part 3: The Church Fathers on the Trinity
 
  • The formulation of Trinitarian doctrine in its classical form can be attributed, among other Church Fathers, to Gregory of Nyssa: God is one nature and three persons.
  • Basil understood each Person of the Holy Trinity in terms of three distinct hypostases, who were one in communion and relationship.
  • When speaking of the Holy Trinity, Augustine departs from the Greek usage of ‘hypostases’, which to him, being a Latin speaker, implied three substances. Instead, he speaks of one essence and three persons.
  • For Thomas, soteriology, the doctrine of salvation, is at the heart of Trinitarian doctrine, because the faith in Christ, which is necessary for salvation, is inseparable from faith in the Holy Trinity.
 Part 4: The Holy Trinity in the Life of the Church
 
  • The New Testament, together with the Old Testament, is the basis of the Church’s developing doctrine on the Holy Trinity and the source of its ongoing Tradition.
  • The most basic Christian doctrine about Jesus is that he is both fully human and fully divine.
  • The early Church not only wrote the New Testament, and read the ancient Jewish Scriptures in a new way, they also gathered regularly to pray and ponder the mystery of their faith in what came to be called the Liturgy.
  • These liturgies were the beginnings of the developing doctrines and, much later, of the Apostles’ Creed and the Nicene Creed, which the Church Fathers wrote to clarify the Church’s teaching about Jesus Christ in relation to the Father and the Holy Spirit.
  • The liturgy is a divine and human work, made possible by the incarnation, death, resurrection of Christ and the sending of the Holy Spirit by the Father.
  • The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are all at work in the Church’s liturgy, each in a different, yet inextricably linked manner.
 Part 5: From Liturgy Towards Theology
 
  • The divinity of Jesus forms the foundation for the Church’s doctrine on the Trinity.
  • The claim to the full divinity of Jesus has its foundation in the New Testament.
  • Jesus is one with the Father and of the same substance as the Father.
  • Trinitarian formulas are frequently present in the New Testament.
  • The Church Fathers arrived at the doctrine of the Trinity by using the Scriptures as their primary source.
  • Jesus, as the perfect image of the invisible God, reveals the Triune nature of God so that we might become the Father’s new Creation through the redemptive act of Christ on the cross and be sanctified by the Holy Spirit in baptism.
  • Through the centuries artists have participated in God’s creative work as they reflected upon the mystery of God.
 Part 6: Know Thyself
 
  • Augustine argues that the more a person moves inwards, that is, the better that person knows him/herself, the closer that person comes to the perfect divine image, who is God.
  • The human person is characterised by a set of internal and external relationships, which are incorporated into a unity of being.
  • While human beings are created in the image of God, Augustine understood that this image within the mind is distorted by sin.
  • For Augustine, redemption is an inward journey of repentance in which the mind learns to know itself as immaterial rather than corporeal in order to live as the image of God.
  • For Augustine, the journey of redemption is also communal, because human beings are commanded to imitate the Trinity in their relationships with God and others.
  • According to Thomas, the dignity of human beings is most perfectly manifested in the hypostatic union when God revealed his Triune nature in Jesus.
  • Thomas posits that the image of God in a human being is imperfect because of sin.
  • The image of God in human beings is destined to become perfect as individuals imitate God through knowledge and actions motivated by love.
Unit 52The Reimagining of Creation (SICT)
 Part 1: Encountering God
 
  • The examples of the human encounter with God in the Bible show us that they are always initiated by God and follow a certain pattern.
  • When we accept the invitation to encounter Christ in the ‘holy ground’ of our being, that encounter elicits a life-changing response.
  • St Francis of Assisi, Thomas Merton, Dorothy Day and St Mother Teresa encountered God in the innermost part of their being through their life experiences, and they responded in different ways to their encounter.
 Part 2: Seeking to Know God
 
  • The source of the need to know God more deeply is the freely bestowed gift of grace from God.
  • There are two sources from which human beings can obtain knowledge of God and from which the People of God can come to know God more deeply – creation and human reasoning.
  • Since his election in 2013 Pope Francis has sought to know God more deeply in the same way that St Francis of Assisi did.
  • Pope Francis’ challenge to all people of goodwill to deepen their knowledge of God by caring for creation has been taken up by Catholic Earthcare Australia.
  • There are many Catholic individuals and organisations who have sought to know God through reason and science and to deepen that knowledge through faith.
 Part 3: The Catholic Reformation
 
  • The Catholic Church’s response to the Protestant Reformation is known as the Counter Reformation, or Catholic Reformation.
  • The Council of Trent was called to respond to Protestant claims, to address abuses and to reaffirm Catholic Teaching.
  • Implementation of the Council of Trent included the establishment of offices to deal with heresy, and the publication of a creed and catechism.
  • Charles Borromeo was a key player in the later part of the Council of Trent, and is credited with implementing many recommendations of the Council.
  • New religious orders sprang up, seeking to return to more appropriate practices, and some existing ones were reformed.
  • Catholic Reformation saints include Ignatius Loyola, Edmund Campion, Teresa of Avila, John of the Cross.
 Part 4: Discovery of the New World
 
  • As new lands were discovered, missionaries followed with the Gospel under the patronage of the Portuguese and Spanish crowns.
  • Jesuit reductions were set up for the protection of Guarani Indians, as well as the spread of Christianity.
  • In the sixteenth century, missionaries, including St Francis Xavier and Matteo Ricci, travelled to the Far East along the routes that had been established for trade.
  • From 1815 the Church was no longer just European, but was on its way to becoming global – a worldwide Church.
  • The Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith was established in 1622 by Pope Gregory XV to assume authority for missionary activity on behalf of the Holy See.
 Part 5: The Enlightenment
 
  • The Enlightenment, or Age of Reason, was an eighteenth-century movement that had its beginnings in the seventeenth-century.
  • When speaking about truth one must be aware that there are different kinds of truth, and each one is valid. In addition, each has its area of concern and field of influence, as well as its own method of reaching conclusions.
  • Great philosophers and scientists of the time challenged the Church and its teachings with an over emphasis on individual freedom and the role of reason.
 Part 6: The World in Revolt
 
  • The eighteenth and nineteenth-century revolutions brought great economic and social change.
  • These ‘revolutions’ had a profound impact on the Church.
  • While the seeds for the separation of Church and state were sown in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the emergence of the secular state can be attributed to the Enlightenment.
 Part 7: Spiritual Revival
 
  • In 1891 Pope Leo XIII’s encyclical, Rerum Novarum – Concerning New Things, was the beginning of the Catholic Church’s engagement with concepts of social justice.
  • During the spiritual revival of the nineteenth century, a number of lay movements and apostolic religious congregations developed within the Church and took up the challenge of Christian ministry.
  • Special devotions developed to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Blessed Virgin Mary.
 Part 8: New Understandings of Church
 
  • John XXIII convened the Second Vatican Council to engage the Church in dialogue with the modern world.
  • Members of the People of God are imperfect, often unholy, part of a pilgrim Church still journeying through history in this world.
  • The Church acts as the Herald of the Good News.
  • Authentic Christian Tradition is discerned by a council of bishops and the Pope.
  • The Second Vatican Council emphasised that all the People of God are called to holiness and to the mission of spreading Christ’s Gospel.
  • The Church is like a sacrament, that is, a visible sign of communion with God and of unity among people.
  • The Sacrament of the Eucharist is the Church’s sign of unity.
  • The image of the Church as Servant comes directly from Jesus’ words and actions recorded in the gospels.
  • Ministry in the Church includes the ordained ministers and the laity.
  • The Church’s ministry extends to the secular world.
 Part 9: Ecumenism and Interfaith Dialogue
 
  • Pope John XXIII convened the Second Vatican Council to engage the Church in dialogue with the modern world.
  • The dialogue between the Catholic Church and the Protestant denominations has to date resulted in a kind of ‘unity’ that is best described as interdenominational ecumenism.
  • Since the Second Vatican Council, there have been significant milestones reached towards the achievement of genuine unity between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches, with agreement reached on major theological issues, such as the sacraments, the Trinity and ecclesiology, but there still is a long way to go.
  • Ecumenical dialogue between the Catholic Church and its Protestant counterparts has followed a number of different approaches or models.
  • Through ecumenical dialogue, there has been a mutual sharing of the common Christian heritage, and the Catholic Church, while remaining true to its own integrity, has learnt and received from other Christian denominations aspects of faith, theology, ecclesiology, liturgy and spirituality that belong to the whole Christian Church.
  • Interfaith dialogue requires an appreciation of world religions and aims to promote understanding.
  • The Second Vatican Council is the first Council in the history of the Church to speak positively of other religious traditions.
 Part 10: Faith in Dialogue with Culture
 
  • The rise of secularism is reflected in the increasing proportion of people claiming to have no religion.
  • New evangelisation is for priests, religious orders and lay people to revitalise Jesus’ message where secular values have replaced God.
  • Today the Church is called to respond to a new historical situation in which life without God is a realistic cultural option for society at large.
 Part 11: Contemporary Teachings on the Human Person
 
  • As a result of ongoing dialogue, the post conciliar Church has developed a more nuanced understanding of the human person in the modern world.
  • The foundational premise of the Theology of the Body is that human beings, male and female, are made in the image and likeness of God, and are called to give themselves in love, which is expressed through the body.
  • The Theology of the Body affirms the goodness of human sexuality, celibacy and sexual intercourse within the context of a sacramental marriage.
  • Evangelii Gaudium is an apostolic exhortation written in response to the crisis facing the Church in the postmodern world, which call for Church renewal and for all Christians to be missionary disciples.
  • Reading the signs of the times, Pope Francis addresses aspects of secularism, consumerism and postmodernity which distort our understanding of what it means to be human.
Unit 53Faith, Reason and Science (SICT)
 Part 1: Purpose and Practice of Faith, Reason and Science
 
  • A person’s worldview is a way of thinking that provides structure, a sense of purpose, guidance, motivation and meaning for one’s life.
  • Religion engages people of faith in the world of beliefs and the world of daily experience to connect them to the transcendent and immanent dimensions of the Divine.
  • Science is confined to exploring the world of daily experience because of the very premise upon which it is based.
  • Christians believe that God is both at once transcendent and immanent, that God is distinct from and fully independent of the material universe, yet interacts with it, and that God created the universe out of love and sustains it out of love.
  • The scientific answers to the big existential questions are very different to faith based answers.
  • Science and religion arrive at truth in different ways.
  • The scientific method can only seek that aspect of truth which can be observed, and therefore the truth revealed by science is factual.
  • One can by faith seek absolute truth, because faith engages both the world of belief and the world of experience within which God is present and has revealed Himself.
  • Nothing that appears to be contrary to reason can be contrary to faith because of the absolute truth made known to us by Divine Revelation.
  • While science regards human reason as supreme, the Church stresses the primacy of faith over reason.
 Part 2: Truth and Mystery
 
  • The truths of the incarnation and the Trinity are mysteries from a theological and scientific point of view.
  • The articulation of the doctrines of the incarnation and the Trinity requires complex descriptions and metaphors or images.
  • The truths of the incarnation and the Trinity converge when viewed from the lens of science and from the lens of theology, because what is true is of God.
 Part 3: Rise of Modern Science in Christian Europe
 
  • The practice of magic was commonplace in the Graeco-Roman world of early Christianity.
  • Charlemagne or Charles the Great recognised the importance of education and learning for the prosperity of the Empire.
  • During the eleventh century, there was a revival of schools within the Western monasteries, which became the focal point of intellectual pursuits.
  • The growth of medieval schools of theology gave rise to universities.
  • By the middle of the thirteenth century, scholasticism incorporated Aristotelian concepts, moulded to fit the Catholic worldview.
  • Aquinas’ writings not only became fundamental texts for the study of theology, but they paved the way for universities to expand their curriculum to include logic and natural philosophy (science) in the curriculum.
  • Science emerged as a serious intellectual pursuit during the latter part of the medieval period in harmony with scholasticism, as universities began to cultivate the study of natural philosophy within their schools.
  • Scientists were encouraged by the Church to explore the world, because it was seen as God’s creation, bearing the signature of God.
  • The contributions of Islam to medieval philosophy, mathematics and science are both numerous and significant.
  • As universities were founded, science became a university enterprise studied and debated using the literature available at the time.
  • The turning point which set the stage for the emergence of modern science came in 1277 when the Bishop of Paris condemned 219 theological and philosophical articles which incorporated Aristotle’s teachings.
  • The 219 articles issued by the Bishop of Paris in 1277 gave rise to a lively interplay of scientific ideas.
  • For modern science to emerge, it was necessary for the nexus between ‘traditional’ science and Aristotelian ideas to be broken, and the impetus for this development came from Francis Bacon.
  • Members of the Royal Society of London applied Bacon’s model to scientific research, and over time other scientific institutions followed suit.
 Part 4: Controversies Between Church and Science
 
  • The Catholic Church draws on two sources when it assesses scientific claims: Scripture and Tradition.
  • Since Copernicus was unable to prove his theory, which was in any case flawed, the Church saw no need to reinterpret the Scriptures to accommodate his heliocentric model and therefore his manuscript was placed on the Index of forbidden books in 1616.
  • In 1758, Benedict XIV vindicated Copernicus and removed his work from the Index.
  • The Church condemned Galileo’s theory because he presented it as factual when it was an unproven hypothesis which contradicted Scripture.
  • The ban on Galileo’s book was lifted in 1822, but it was not until 1992 that Pope John Paul II officially declared Galileo’s innocence.
  • Darwin argued that all living things originated from a common ancestor, that species gradually change over time, and that as these species change they give rise to new species by means of natural selection.
  • During the nineteenth century, there was a range of reactions among Catholic theologians and scientists to Darwin’s theory.
  • The Church adopted a neutral stand on evolution and natural selection, which was finally lifted in 1950 with the publication of Pope Pius XII’s encyclical, Humani Generis, which expressly recognised Darwin’s ‘doctrine’ as a valid hypothesis.
 Part 5: Interplay of Tradition, Scripture and Science
 
  • In matters that can be proven to be factual, the Catholic Church regards science to be authoritative, but in matters concerning divinely revealed truths Tradition and Scripture are given equal primacy over science.
  • The Catholic Church acknowledges that the Big Bang theory and the unfolding of creation through the process of evolution are valid scientific theories, but insists that the beginning of the universe and the unfolding of creation over time follow God’s divine plan, and that God’s creative activity is fulfilled with the coming of Jesus.
  • According to Genesis, God initiated creation – the Big Bang – through His Word and according to His unique design, lovingly guiding the process through the mechanism of evolution as creation unfolded.
  • The Catholic Church does not deny the possibility that the human body evolved from pre-existing creatures, but insists that, starting with Adam and Eve, God directly creates and infuses a unique soul to every human being.
 Part 6: New Atheism, Theism and Science
 
  • The new atheists make several claims which, they erroneously argue, prove that God does not exist and that religious beliefs are irrational.
  • The claims of new atheism do not conflict with classical theism, because the new atheists are targeting their criticism at other forms of theism, such as creationism, which has been rejected by the Catholic Church.
  • While new atheism draws on empirical science to critique the Scriptures, it applies a fundamentalist approach to the Bible.
  • The new atheists are incapable of proving the non-existence of God and the irrationality of religious beliefs.
 Part 7: Harmony Between Faith and Science
 
  • A person can be a scientist and still have faith in God, because there is harmony between faith and science, as long as we do not step beyond role played by faith and science respectively.
 Part 8: Laudato Si’
 
  • The whole of creation is infused with the presence of God.
  • Christ’s saving act is celebrated in the Sacrament of the Eucharist in which space, time and matter are exalted and sanctified.
  • Humankind is intricately linked to nature.
  • The current ecological crisis is the product of human sin.
  • The ecological crisis, which has been fuelled by the growth of individualism, affects the poverty stricken people in the developing world.
  • The earth and everything in it belongs to God, and human beings have merely been given stewardship of creation.
  • The technocratic paradigm is responsible for many of the global problems facing the world today.
  • Pope Francis calls for an ecological conversion of heart, which he terms an ‘integral ecology’.
Unit 54To Be Fully Human (SICT)
 Part 1: Imago Dei
 
  • Our ability to reason and act wilfully – our intellect – sets us apart from all other creatures and gives us a likeness to God.
  • The human person is made up of a material or physical body, and a soul which is immaterial and spiritual.
  • Human beings point towards God, whereas the communion of saints in heaven reveals the God in whose image the saints are created.
  • God is our ultimate end in whom we attain perfect happiness or beatitude.
  • The human person’s identity as Imago Dei, or ‘image of God’, endows each human person with an essential and inviolable dignity from which human rights and duties flow.
  • Both faith and morally good acts are necessary if we are to attain our ultimate end, life with God.
 Part 2: Freedom and the Moral Act
 
  • Human freedom is a free gift from God, to help us to become who God created us to be, and to share eternal union with God.
  • The responsible exercise of human freedom consists of acting in ways that are morally good.
  • Differing degrees of freedom, knowledge and intention influence moral responsibility.
  • To seek the universal good is the natural inclination of the will.
  • According to Peter Lombard, our power to choose is derived from the intellect and the will.
  • According to St Thomas Aquinas, and affirmed by the Second Vatican Council, true freedom lies in the will moving towards that which it desires by its nature, which has been communicated to it by the intellect.
  • According to Ockham, free choice is the first faculty of the human person, whose act does not originally depend on anything but his or her own choice.
  • Aquinas’ teaching on freedom can be described as the freedom to flourish, whereas Ockham’s notion of freedom amounts to a freedom of indifference.
  • Our response to a moral situation is determined by our values, which in turn are informed by the moral teaching of the Church and our conscience, as they relate to that particular situation.
  • The Church teaches that there are absolute moral standards to which all humankind must adhere.
 Part 3: Revealed and Natural Law, Conscience and Free Will
 
  • Our conscience helps us choose right from wrong.
  • The Catholic Church teaches that God speaks through our conscience.
  • Two principles must be considered when using our conscience: it must be informed and we must act on it.
  • Conscience is not infallible.
  • Christian moral decision making is aided by practising the four cardinal virtues.
 Part 4: Morality in Action
 
  • Abortion and teenage alcohol use are moral issues.
  • We can resolve moral dilemmas by drawing on facts, Church teachings, Scripture, our conscience and our values in a prayerful and systematic way.
 Part 5: The Virtuous Life
 
  • Paul develops his theology of the crucified Christ by employing metaphors, which seem to emphasise the scandalous and foolish nature of the crucifixion, to demonstrate the centrality of this event to the redemption of humanity.
  • Through the crucifixion and resurrection, Christ became our source of righteousness – being made right with God – and sanctification – becoming what he is.
  • For Paul, the Mosaic Law is fulfilled when we, firm in faith, love our neighbour – it is the hallmark of true Christian living.
  • Since we have been crucified with Christ through baptism, we are called to become what he is, and this requires us to live a good moral life, which is a hallmark of the kingdom of God.
  • The cardinal virtues can be acquired and developed in the absence of a personal encounter with and commitment to Christ, and they sow the seeds which prepare us for union with God.
  • Despite the capacity we have to become good by practising the cardinal virtues, our potential for true internal freedom can only be realised by the grace of God.
  • The virtues of faith, hope and charity are called theological virtues because their object is God Himself.
  • When the theological virtues function in conjunction with the moral virtues, the latter are raised to a supernatural level whereby, with the grace of the Holy Spirit, we can grow in union with Christ and eventually attain the true internal freedom and perfect happiness that come from sharing in the divine life of God.
 Part 6: The Challenge of Remaining Free
 
  • The Nazi ideology is founded on a premise which denies that there is a personal God and the existence of an absolute moral standard.
  • To make the ideology of Nazism a reality, Hitler became responsible for the Second World War and for the murder of millions of innocent people in what became known as the Holocaust.
  • While the Nazis successfully limited the capacity of their victims to be externally free, they were unable to strip them of their internal freedom.
  • Nazi ideology is totally incompatible with the Catholic theology of the human person, because the Church teaches that human beings are created in the image and likeness of God and therefore possess an innate dignity which has been infused into them by God Himself.
  • The ability to conceive is a gift from God, jointly shared by husband and wife.
  • Infertility often has terrible emotional consequences for the couple, whose hopes and dreams appear to have been shattered.
  • Rapid and extensive advancements in medical research have led to the availability of artificial methods of reproduction and to ethical and moral considerations.
  • Proponents of the use of artificial insemination or IVF for the purpose of surrogacy have destroyed the embryo’s capacity to live and to flourish on the false premise that it is a commodity to be used to satisfy the couple’s desire to have a child because it is owed to them.
  • Participants in the gravely immoral act of surrogacy choose an apparent good which points them away from God and therefore limits their capacity to attain beatitude – the true happiness and freedom to which we are destined as the children of God.
  • The Church condemns surrogacy on the basis of three ethical principles which are derived from the truth that human beings are loved into being by God who is family, and who loves us and creates us in the Divine image and likeness.
  • New atheism is a philosophy which posits that God does not exist and therefore there is no such things as Divinely Revealed Truth.
  • The new atheists argue that through the evolutionary process human beings collectively have learnt through experience what is morally good and what is morally evil.
  • New atheism limits the human capacity for true internal freedom, because the ability to choose the true good is based on human reason alone.
  • New atheism effectively blocks the human capacity to attain true happiness by living a virtuous life, because the soul is neither willing nor receptive to the grace of God.
Unit 55Virtue, Vice and Salvation (SICT)
 Part 1: The Good Life
 
  • There are several contemporary secular approaches to what constitutes the good life.
  • Contemporary challenges to living the good life include individualism, consumerism, exploitation and instant gratification.
  • In the Judaic tradition, the good life is summarised in the Mosaic Law, especially the Ten Commandments, given to Moses on Mt Sinai.
  • In the Christian tradition the good life is embodied in the Great Commandment of love, which Jesus presented to his followers as a summary of the Mosaic Law and what God communicated to the Israelites through the prophets.
  • The Beatitudes constitute the path of life, the path by which we become fully human.
 Part 2: Disruption of Original Goodness
 
  • The two creation stories in the Book of Genesis affirm the goodness of God’s creation and the state of harmony that existed between humanity, God and all of creation prior to The Fall.
  • Human beings image God in the activities of knowing and loving.
  • God planned from the very moment the human race began that we would attain perfect happiness by participating in the divine life of God.
  • As a consequence of The Fall, Adam and Eve lost their original holiness – what theologians refer to as sanctifying grace – for themselves and for all humanity.
  • Expelled from the Garden of Eden, humanity became subject to pain, suffering, sickness and death.
  • It is through Jesus that we are given the grace to become truly human, to be liberated from sin.
  • God is the source of everything there is, but God is not the source of evil – God simply allows for the possibility of evil.
 Part 3: Ancient Greek Philosophers on the Good Life
 
  • For Socrates, the good life is connected with right human conduct and virtue.
  • Plato argued that to live the good life, one must attain an inner harmony between one’s irrational attraction for what is considered to be the good, and the soul’s rational attraction to the absolute or universal good.
  • According to Aristotle, human conduct is oriented towards the attainment of the true good, and to this end the good life consists of cultivating friendship and living a virtuous life.
  • The virtues of courage, temperance and justice are essential to living the good life, and prudence – when practised neither in defect or excess – is the virtue by which we determine their mean.
 Part 4: Emerging Christian Understanding of the Good Life
 
  • For St Paul, the good life consists of living a life of authentic love, characterised by faith – loving God with our whole being – and loving our neighbour as Christ loves.
  • For Augustine, the quest for happiness – the good life – is not oriented to this world; rather, our earthly pilgrimage is to be directed towards the life to come, the City of God.
  • For Augustine it is impossible to live the good life without the grace of God, which heals humanity’s fallen nature and places it right relationship with God, elevating it to share in God very own life.
  • For Aquinas, The good life consists of all the activities which enable human beings to be united with God in heaven.
  • Aquinas argues that, since the good life prepares us for life in heaven it is necessarily a life of moral virtue.
  • As Christians, we cannot allow ourselves to become complacent in the moral life – to do so would make God’s gift of grace ineffective.
 Part 5: Role of Faith, Reason and Grace in Living the Good Life
 
  • Our redemption and sanctification was accomplished by the death and resurrection Christ.
  • The natural law is perfected by the new Law of Love, given to humankind by Christ through faith, and is the means by which human beings live the good life and thereby attain their true end.
  • As the perfect, full and true image of God, Jesus shows us by his words and lived example what constitutes the good life.
  • The grace we require to grow in perfection comes from personal and liturgical prayer, the performance of good actions, motivated by faith, hope and love, and above all, the sacraments, which are the principal means by which God communicates His grace.
 Part 6: Rewards for the Good Life
 
  • When we live the good life, we are open to the grace of God, who is a source of happiness, joy and a peaceful conscience in this life.
  • Embracing the Mosaic Law, understood as the Law of Love defined by Jesus, is the means by which we are united with God in heaven.
  • The good life consists in living our whole lives as one continuous prayer in the sense that every moment of our lives is a response to God in faith which calls us to love our neighbour.
  • For a life lived well, death is the ultimate act of surrender to a gracious and welcoming God.
  • Judgment takes place at the moment of death and is realised in the salvation or damnation of the person for all eternity.
  • Heaven is a state of being, a state of perfect happiness which God intends for humanity, the kingdom of God as the promised goal of the good life.
  • Hell is the eternal exclusion from the kingdom of God or, put differently, the complete and utter separation of the soul from the love of God forever.
  • Purgatory is another aspect of death in which the judgment of God purifies and refines the soul in preparation for entry into heaven.
Unit 56The Good Works (SICT)
 Part 1: Sources of Catholic Ethics
 
  • Jesus’ commandments to love God and neighbour form the foundation on which the Church’s ethical teachings, which have emerged and matured over two thousand years, are based.
  • The Ten Commandments should not be viewed simply as a static body of rules, but as part of the Church’s collective body of wisdom which is constantly maturing.
  • For Jesus, love of God and love of neighbour are the foundation for the Beatitudes, the formula for human flourishing.
  • While natural law reasoning can assist individuals in the process of reflecting on moral matters, it also has serious limitations.
  • The Tradition of the Church is constantly maturing as the Church responds to new emerging ethical issues.
 Part 2: Called to Discipleship
 
  • Jesus’ invitation to discipleship and the human response to that call is an unfolding process, which, if accepted, is transformative.
  • Jesus articulated a compelling vision of what it means to be human, a vision he would call the kingdom of God.
  • While acts of loving service and self-sacrifice are essential to the Christian life, the motivation underlying these acts is equally significant.
  • Doing good works is an expression of love of our neighbour, and our desire to do so has its source in faith.
  • St Mary of the Cross MacKillop is an outstanding role-model of service and self-sacrifice.
 Part 3: Expressions of Discipleship
 
  • Faith and good works are inseparable because loving acts of service and self-sacrifice are signs of faith and grace.
  • Over the centuries, there have been many women and men who have proclaimed the joy of the Gospel through their extraordinary lives of loving service and self-sacrifice.
  • In Australia today, the Church gives expression to the joy of the Gospel by providing services in healthcare, education and social welfare.
 Part 4: Christian Witness in the World of Media
 
  • We need to become active and responsible partners in the media of communication, discerning how the media can serve rather than control us, and how it can further social justice and human well-being in areas, such as human poverty, world hunger and starvation, action on global warming and discouraging pornography.
  • In order to promote the good that the media can serve, the Church offers some basic moral principles to guide decisions about how media are used.
  • People who are involved in the production and transmission of media have a moral obligation to ensure that their activities promote human flourishing.
  • Social communications media are influenced and constrained, as well as influencing and constraining.
  • The electronic revolution has opened up the information superhighway.
  • Concern for the quality of life of all human beings in society raises many issues regarding the social communications media.
 Part 5: Towards Freedom to Flourish
 
  • Equipped with the appropriate media literacy skills, we are empowered to bear witness to the Catholic faith by correcting media bias, distortion and cover-ups with the truth of the gospels.
  • In view of the range of positions taken by media on different ethical issues, it is important be aware of the political bias that influences the sources we access.
  • As Catholics, it is important to engage in the media with a critical eye, viewed through the lens of Church teachings.
Unit 57 The Common Good (SICT)
 Part 1: Foundational Principles
 
  • Our life-long task is to become more authentic images of God.
  • The entire human person, who is a unity of body and soul, is made in the image and likeness of God.
  • The pursuit of the common good is both an individual and a social responsibility.
  • There are several secular philosophies, such as Marxism, utilitarianism and individualism, which erode the common good.
  • The Catholic understanding of the good life is derived from the thinking of Aristotle, Augustine and Aquinas.
  • The good life and the common good are inextricably linked, and this is made abundantly clear in the Scriptures.
  • The good life is about using our freedom authentically to pursue the true happiness for which we have been created.
 Part 2: Promoting the Common Good Through Catholic Social Teaching
 
  • Jesus challenged the unjust social structures of oppression, poverty and exclusion of the society of his time.
  • The encounter with the Canaanite woman confronts the disciples, the Pharisees and scribes with the humiliating reality that the Canaanite woman, commonly believed to be no better than an animal, had greater faith than they. It was a stern reminder to them that discrimination and prejudice were unacceptable.
  • The parable of the Good Samaritan demonstrates that all people are worthy of being loved and being shown compassion and mercy, regardless of their race or social standing.
  • Through his encounter with the Samaritan woman, Jesus demonstrated that God’s offer of salvation is extended to all people, and there is no room for discrimination on the basis of race or gender in the kingdom of God.
 Part 3: Church Statements on Social Issues
 
  • Catholic social teaching is founded on the Scriptures, in particular, the Mosaic Law and Jesus’ commandment to love God and neighbour.
  • Catholic social teaching is articulated in twelve papal encyclicals, one document from the Synod of Bishops and one Vatican II document dealing with social, economic and political relations.
 Part 4: Foundational Principles of Catholic Social Teaching
 
  • Social justice refers to creating a society that recognises and upholds the principles of equality and solidarity, and values and respects the dignity of every human person.
  • The Church articulates her teachings about social justice in seven general principles.
 Part 5: Application of Natural Law to the Common Good
 
  • All law, natural, human and divine, flows from the eternal law of God and is perfected by love of God and neighbour.
  • In Catholic social teaching, commitment gives rise to the natural law precepts of solidarity, subsidiarity and justice.
 Part 6: Living the Common Good
 
  • Catholic social teachings act like a lighthouse, steering us away from social structures of oppression and injustice towards the common good.
  • There are numerous social evils, such as slavery, poverty, unemployment and discrimination, which can be eradicated by the proper application of Catholic social teachings.
  • Slavery is a phenomenon that has existed for thousands of years and continues to this day.
  • Victims of the slave trade include men, women, boys and girls, but the majority are woman and girls.
  • The organisational structure of the human trafficking trade is complex.
  • Human traffickers prey on people who are vulnerable to being exploited.
  • There are a variety of social and cultural factors which make potential victims of human trafficking vulnerable to exploitation.
  • Human trafficking and slavery are problems in Australia, and in 2018 the Federal Government enacted the Modern Slavery Act 2018 to restrain the slave trade in Australia.
  • Human trafficking violates every principle of Catholic social teaching.
  • In response to the growing global problem of human trafficking and enslavement, there are several opportunities for Catholics to bear witness to their faith.
Unit 58Set Text Study (SICT)
 Part 1: Role of Sacred Texts
 
  • Taken together, the Old and New Testaments are the very foundation of our Catholic Christian identity.
  • After Adam and Eve broke the original covenant, God restored the relationship humanity had lost with God through successive covenants, each building upon the one that preceded it.
  • As a result of Christ’s death, resurrection and ascension, Christians have become a new creation, a people set free from sin, and a people united to God in Christ.
  • Liturgy is the point of intersection between Catholic culture and spirituality, because it is the vehicle by which we celebrate what God has done for us and who we are as a Catholic people.
  • The liturgy, and the sacraments in particular, are God’s way of encountering human beings in their mode of existence, and thus lift a person to heaven.
  • The liturgy of the Church consists of many components, such as prayers, readings from Scripture, ritual elements and actions, and song, which are prescribed in the Church’s liturgical books.
  • The Church’s liturgical texts prescribe the rites necessary for the sacraments to be validly conferred, and for the Church’s worship to be perfectly united to Christ.
  • Liturgical texts influence the internal and external perception of Catholic identity, because they prescribe the prayers and Scripture readings, the repeated ritual actions, the rhythm of the liturgical calendar, the sung texts and visual components of the liturgy.
  • Liturgical texts influence the external perception of what it means to be Catholic, because they connect believers with their Christian origins, are a source of Catholic theology, prescribe how the public worship of the Church is to be celebrated, preserve, interpret, strengthen and pass on the faith, promote unity, actualise the Church as the Body of Christ, and highlight the Eucharist as the source and summit of the Christian life.
  • Liturgical worship is significant for the Catholic community in promoting unity among believers by promoting common belief, practising common worship, promoting Christian living, proclaiming the Christian Scriptures, communally informing and educating, and communally empowering the congregation to spread the Good News of salvation in Jesus Christ.
 Part 2: The Text of the Didache
 
 Part 3: The Didache in Context
 
  • The Didache was originally transmitted orally and subsequently committed to writing in response to issues that arose in the Christian house churches and the broader Church generally.
  • As the Christian communities became increasingly inclusive of Christian Gentiles, the need arose to develop a program for the formation of Gentile converts into the Christian communities.
  • At first, the rules regarding membership to the Church were never scrutinised because the emphasis was on converting the Jews to Christianity.
  • The Council of Jerusalem did not resolve the membership issue to the satisfaction of the Judaisers, who dissented, effectively giving rise to two separate churches in Antioch and elsewhere, which were not in full communion with each other.
  • Sensitive to the need to enable full and equal Eucharistic table fellowship between Jewish and Gentile Christians, the Didache outlines a very detailed training programme that Gentile converts had to undertake prior to baptism, after which they were permitted to share fully in the Eucharistic meal.
 Part 4: The Themes of the Didache
 
  • The Way of Life and the Way of Death outline in great detail how the Gentile catechumens are to embrace the path that leads to Life and to reject the path that leads to destruction.
  • The newly baptised Gentiles were required to die to the Gentile society from which they came.
  • The Eucharistic meal expresses the ritual separation of the Christian community from the pagan world.
  • The precautionary nature of the Didache reflects the power exercised by the communal authorities (the bishops and deacons) over the itinerant apostles, prophets and teachers.
  • The Didache mirrors the transition of the early Church from orality to textuality and informal charismatic leadership to institutional authority.
  • The honouring of the genuine prophets with the first fruits may also mirror the delicate balance the leadership sought to maintain as the community transitioned from orality to textuality and informal charismatic leadership to institutional authority.
  • Regular confession of sins is a precondition for offering a pure sacrifice to God.
  • Members of the Didache community were instructed to appoint honest, humble and upright men – bishops and deacons – as overseers.
  • The overarching theme of this final section of the Didache is to encourage the Christian community to remain strong in faith.
 Part 5: Textual Analysis of the Didache
 
  • There are many literary devices used in the text of the Didache, which are consistent with its oral transmission prior to being committed to writing, and they function to facilitate memorisation and stabilise the oral tradition.
  • As a rite of initiation, the Didache consists of a series of rituals and symbols, arranged in an organised structure
 Part 6: The Didache and the Good Life
 
  • Having entered the economy of salvation through baptism, and received God’s grace through the theological virtues, believers are perfected by the ongoing divine grace given as they learn more about their faith, participate in the life of the early Christian community and celebrate the Eucharist.
  • The catechumens and their Christian brothers and sisters were expected to govern their lives by the virtues of temperance, courage, justice, prudence and generosity.
  • With the grace of the Holy Spirit, believers grow in union with Christ as they cooperate with God’s saving plan by perfecting their living out of the theological and moral virtues, until the day their hope of being united with God in heaven is be fulfilled.
 Part 7: Influence of the Didache on Catholic Tradition
 
  • The Didache gives us a snapshot of issues facing the community in Antioch and the Church more generally.
  • The Didache functions as a liturgical text, drawing believers into the liturgical worship of the early Church.
  • The Didache acted as a kind of springboard pointing to theological concepts, which the mentors would have to explore with the catechumens.
  • Christian texts explore in varying depths the story of salvation as it is recounted in the Bible.
  • Christian texts define how the fundamental message of Christ and the Church is celebrated in liturgy and prayer.
  • While the Didache is primarily not theological in nature, it does define what it means to live the good life, to love God and neighbour by living a virtuous life, informed by faith and motivated by hope and love.
Unit 59The Church and the Arts (SICT)
 Part 1: Art as a Reflection of Human Experience
 
  • Created in the image and likeness of God and created for God, human beings can inspire others towards God.
  • When they are inspired by truth and love, human beings mirror God the Creator.
  • Humanity’s preoccupation with the beauty of the human body goes back thousands of years.
  • The ancient Greeks saw human beauty as a divine perfection and therefore represented human beings as real people, without distorting the body image.
  • With the advent of Christianity, the depiction of nude characters in art decreased significantly.
  • During the thirteenth century, artistic interest in nudity began to resurface in Italy, and by the renaissance nudity in art had become quite common.
  • During the Renaissance, the artists’ focus is on Mary’s inner beauty, her spiritual perfection.
  • Religious art continues to provide an expression of human experience in modern times.
  • Mary continues to be the subject of contemporary Christian artists.
 Part 2: Importance of Art in the Church
 
  • Created in the image and likeness of God and created for God, human beings can inspire others towards God.
  • Sacred art has the potential to tap into the four points of intersection between sacred art and religious belief.
  • When they are ‘inspired by truth and love’, human beings mirror ‘God the Creator’.
  • The creative arts have been of service to the Church throughout the ages.
  • The earliest Christian images that we have, were painted on the walls of the catacombs.
  • Early paintings and inscriptions provide valuable information about the life and thought of early Christianity.
  • Early Christians gathered in house churches.
  • After the Edict of Milan, Christianity significantly influenced the direction of Western culture.
  • Architectural features of the Roman basilica were used in the first Christian churches.
  • The first Christians chanted psalms and sang hymns, following the example of Christ and his apostles.
  • During the first few centuries CE, Christians began to respond to heresies with hymns, and also used chants, hymns and songs for people’s edification and instruction.
  • The story of the Church, including its life, its heroes and heroines, was presented visually on the interior of church walls, particularly for the uneducated.
  • The Christians of Rome covered the walls, floors, domes and ceilings of their churches with religious mosaics.
  • Examples of Christian mosaics can be found in the churches of St Mary Major in Rome, San Vitale in Ravenna, San Apollinare in Classe, and Hagia Sophia (Church of Holy Wisdom) in Constantinople, now Istanbul.
  • Illuminated manuscripts treated scenes from sacred history, and their role as expressions of Christianity remains considerable.
  • During the Renaissance, Christian art developed within the context of the re-birth of knowledge and secular learning.
  • Renaissance popes had access to funds from wealthy and aristocratic people, so they spent the money on promoting the papacy through the arts.
  • Renaissance expressions of Christianity through the arts were concentrated in Italy, the centre of Catholicism.
 Part 3: The Arts as an Expression of Faith in Renaissance Christianity
 
  • During the Renaissance, Christian art developed within the context of the re-birth of knowledge and secular learning.
  • Renaissance popes had access to funds from wealthy and aristocratic people, so they spent the money on promoting the papacy through the arts.
  • Renaissance expressions of Christianity through the arts were concentrated in Italy, the centre of Catholicism.
 Part 4: The Arts and Belief in the Immaculate Conception
 
  • Although the dogma of the Immaculate Conception was not formally pronounced until 1854 by Pope Pius IX, it dates back to the very early Church.
  • The development of artistic works depicting the Immaculate Conception follows a pattern similar to the emerging understanding of the doctrine in the Church.
 Part 5: The Truth and Beauty of the Annunciation in Art
 
  • The profound significance and beauty of the divinely revealed truth of the Annunciation must be understood in the context of the incarnation, and the human condition which made it necessary for God to assume a human nature in Jesus of Nazareth.
  • Through the incarnation God sent His Son in complete solidarity and identity with humankind in its existence under the powers of sin and death in order to redeem humanity.
  • Mary’s humble and trusting submission to the will of God at the Annunciation made the incarnation possible.
  • Over the centuries, artists have used many to depict the truth, goodness and beauty revealed in the Annunciation.
  • Fra Angelico’s The Annunciation in the Convent of San Marco reveals the truth, goodness and beauty of the moment of Mary’s conception.
 Part 6: Mary – Perfect Disciple and Mother of the Church
 
  • Mary is a disciple, not because of her blood relationship to Jesus, but because she heard the word of God and acted on it.
  • Mary teaches us that we are called to live a life of virtue, the good life, a life centred on doing the true good so that we may ever be in God’s presence.
  • Scripture and art convey the notion that Mary heard the word of God and acted on it with perfect faith, thereby blessing all believers by pointing them to Jesus.
  • Discipleship calls for an openness to encounter Christ in faith through the people we meet each day.
  • Although not explicitly stated in the gospels, Mary played an active part in Jesus’ ministry, and was present at the key events of his adult life.
  • Mary’s growing awareness of her role as a disciple is powerfully conveyed in the questions posed in the song titled, ‘Mary did you know?’ by Pentatonix.
  • The crucifixion scenes depicted in artistic works vividly and dramatically present Mary as the perfect disciple, who shared in her son’s pain and suffering as he died on the cross.
  • When we accept suffering in faith, hope and love, as Mary did, we become more authentic images of God.
  • Mary points humanity to Christ through the Church, and Christ works in the Church, which through the power of the Holy Spirit points believers to God the Father.
  • Marian art facilitates our ongoing encounter with the Son of God through the Church.
  • By reflecting on Marian art we learn that we encounter Christ through the Church by becoming missionary disciples.
Unit 60The Church and First Peoples (SICT)
 Part 1: The Emerging Mission of the Early Church
 
  • From the very beginning, the Church was called to further the mission of Jesus by making disciples of all nations.
  • There are interpretive difficulties associated with uncovering the unfolding missionary activity of the early Church.
  • The early Church’s mission to the Gentiles was replete with difficulties, divisions, hardships and persecution.
 Part 2: Historical Development of Mission Theology
 
  • The missionary activity of the early Church gave rise to a theology, which emphasised the expansion of the kingdom of God by winning souls for Jesus.
  • When Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire in the fourth century, the direction of missionary activity shifted from a mission that formerly belonged to all Christians, to priests, monks and nuns, whose specific task was to proclaim the Gospel in foreign lands.
  • Pope Honorius III was the first to articulate the mission theology of the Church in a papal bull in 1225.
  • Prior to the twentieth century, the mission theology of the Church conveyed a vivid sense of human helplessness and sinfulness that necessitated missionary activity, because those outside the Church needed salvation.
  • Three major developments in the theology of mission evolved at the Second Vatican Council.
  • Evangelii Nuntiandi (1975) evangelisation with the proclamation of the kingdom of God, and calls Catholic Christians to bear witness by words and actions that God loves the world.
  • Chrsitifideles Laici (1988) defines the mission of the laity as a sharing in the priestly, prophetic and kingly mission of Christ.
  • Redemptoris Missio (1990) couches the necessity of missionary activity in terms of God’s self-revelation in the gospels.
  • Verbum Dei (2010) invites people to encounter Christ through the power of the Holy Spirit.
  • Evangelii Gaudium (2013) pays particular attention to the social dimension of Christ’s mission of redemption which all the baptised share as missionary disciples.
 Part 3: The Missionary Church among the Guarani Indians in Colonial Latin America
 
  • The Guarani Indians were a warlike people, who subsisted on fishing, horticulture, and hunting and gathering in the lush forest environment, and practised cannibalism and polygamy.
  • By and large, the Spanish settlers mistreated the Guarani people.
  • The Jesuit reductions offered the Guarani Indians safety and became an important structure for Christianising, educating and civilising them.
  • The missionary activity of the Church was regarded as a priority to ensure that the indigenous peoples were converted to Catholic Christianity and remained within the fold of the Roman Catholic Church at a time when Protestant missionary activity was expanding.
  • The Jesuit mission theology was based on the premise that the Guarani Indians were sinful pagans in need of salvation, because there was no forgiveness of sins and salvation outside the Church.
  • The sacraments played an essential role in protecting the Guarani people from ‘sins of the flesh’ and were regarded as the ‘gateway’ to the life of devotion required for salvation.
  • The Jesuit fathers left a deeply religious native population who was devoted to the Catholic faith.
  • The Jesuit fathers empowered the Guarani Indians to become self-sufficient and free.
 Part 4: Beagle Bay Mission
 
  • The religious, social and political contexts of nineteenth century Australia were conducive to the establishment of missions for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • Beagle Bay mission was established by the French Trappist monks in 1890 and later taken over by the Pallottine priest and brother who were assisted by the Sister of Saint John of God.
  • The Pallottines and sisters were great role models and set an authentic example of what it meant to be a Catholic in the pre-Vatican II Church.
  • In the Australian context, the mission theology of the Church was to convert the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to Catholicism, teach them the civilised way of the ‘white’ world and to nourish them spiritually through the administration of the sacraments, the Eucharist, in particular.
  • While many Aboriginal people in the Kimberley region, who were sent to Beagle Bay mission, were traumatised by the loss of their indigenous identity, the mission did have a profoundly positive influence on the children sent there.
 Part 5: Indigenous Expressions of the Catholic Faith
 
  • The challenge for the Church is to reflect the face of Christ in an Aboriginal way, rather than a ‘white’ – even multicultural – European way.
  • Inculturation, to be authentic, requires the participation of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, because only they understand Aboriginal culture.
  • The rituals and texts of the Mass celebrated by indigenous communities are adapted to reflect and respect the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people’s culture.
  • The Aboriginal and Torres Strat Islander people give expression to their faith through architecture and art.
 Part 6: The Prophetic Mission of the Church
 
  • As citizens of the city of God, St Paul says we are part of God’s household and part of a building that has Jesus as its cornerstone and the apostles and prophets as the foundations.
  • Christians are called to give hope to the building of the ‘city of God, the civilisation of love’.
  • Jesus announced that the Spirit of the Lord had anointed him and sent him to bring good news to the poor, to proclaim liberty to captives and sight to the blind; to set the downtrodden free and proclaim the Lord’s favour (Lk 4:18).
  • Building a city and ‘civilisation of love’ is the task and vocation of each person individually and with others.
  • Justice is understood to be fair dealing in relationships with others, individually and communally.
 Part 7: Fulfilling the Christian Mission
 
  • Poverty is present in Australia among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, young people and students, women and sole parents, people with disabilities, children, the homeless, and those in rural communities.
  • Every human being has a personal worth and our task is to acknowledge and develop that worth.
  • Aboriginal spirituality offers us the same qualities Jesus spoke of in the beatitudes.
Unit 61The Church and the Contemporary World (SICT)
 Part 1: I Will Give You Living Water (John 4:10)
 
  • John’s account of the Samaritan woman at the well embodies the central purpose of mission, to bring people together to hear the Gospel and to respond to the Word of God by becoming disciples.
 Part 2: Missionary Mandate, Word, Witness and Dialogue
 
  • Key scripture and authoritative texts highlight the missionary mandate given by Christ.
  • The missionary mandate comes from a personal encounter with Christ.
  • The missionary work of Saint Paul and Pope Saint John Paul II demonstrate how dialogue and encounter is word and witness in different cultural, political, religious and historical contexts.
 Part 3: Context of the Contemporary Church
 
  • The Western world, including Australia, is becoming increasingly pluralist and secular.
 Part 4: Plurality – Reasons and Implications
 
  • There are many reasons contributing to the pluralist and secular culture of Australia and the western world more generally, and these present challenges for the Church.
  • The Catholic Church in Australia is remarkably active and effective in carrying out the ministry of the Church in what is essentially a pluralist and secularist society.
 Part 5: New Evangelisation
 
  • The Church needs to engage in the contemporary world through new evangelisation.
  • New evangelisation has six dimensions.
  • The new evangelisation program follows the same pattern as the story of the woman at the well.
  • The Church offers numerous avenues for encountering Christ.
  • The Church can and does respond to the spiral of silence using the model adopted by Antioch.
Unit 62Religion and Peace – Islam (SOR)
 Part 1: Overview
 
  • The topic, Religion and Peace, in the Understanding Faith Resource, focuses on the characteristic responses of three world religious traditions – Christianity, Judaism and Islam – to the concept of peace. The topic is directed towards the syllabus requirements for the NSW Stage Six HSC Studies of Religion II. The syllabus states that TWO religious traditions are to be selected for integrated study in each of the following areas:
    • expression of peace in the sacred texts of the tradition
    • significant teachings about peace
    • the religious tradition’s contributions to inner peace of the individual
    • the religious tradition’s contributions to world peace.
 Part 2: Concept of Peace in Islam
 
  • Nature of peace
  • Islam as a religion of peace
  • Importance of peace
 Part 3: How Peace is Informed by the Qur’an and Hadith
 
  • Meaning of Qur’an, Sunnah and Hadith
  • Justice
  • Crime and punishment
  • Forgiveness
  • Good, evil and suffering
 Part 4: Two Teachings About Peace
 
  • Peaceful coexistence: the first centuries
  • Peaceful coexistence today
  • Lesser Jihad
  • Is Islam a religion of peace?
 Part 5: How Islam Guides the Individual to Inner Peace
 
  • Meaning of Islam
  • The human condition
  • Nafs
  • Pathway to inner peace
  • Ethics and spirituality
  • The Five Pillars
 Part 6: How Islam Contributes to World Peace
 
  • Said Nursi
  • Mohamed Albaradei
  • Shirin Ebadi
  • Hawa Abdi
Unit 63Religion and Non-Religion (SOR)
 Part 1: Overview
 
  • The topic, Religion and Non-Religion, in the Understanding Faith Resource, focuses on the human search for meaning through religion and non-religion. The topic is directed towards the syllabus requirements for the NSW Stage Six HSC Studies of Religion II. The syllabus states that each of the following areas are to be selected for integrated study:
    • The religious dimension in human history
    • New religious expression
    • Non-religious worldviews
    • The difference between religious and non-religious worldviews.
 Part 2: Religious Dimension in History
 
  • Introduction
  • Animism – animism as religious expression; features of animism
  • Polytheism – the Mesopotamian pantheon; the ancient Greek (Roman) pantheon: the Egyptian pantheon
  • Monotheism – the ancient Near East; ancient Greece; Judaism
 Part 3: The Significance of the Religious Dimension
 
  • Nature of the religious dimension
  • Personal well-being
  • Intrinsic religiosity and person well-being – meaning and purpose for the individual; social cohesion; marriage and family; morality and ethics
  • Social cohesion and transformation – religion as an agent of social cohesion
  • Religion as an agent of social transformation – Liberation Theology; Catholic Church in colonial Australia; Protestant Reformation
  • Adherents of world religions – geographical distribution
 Part 4: New Religious Expression
 
  • Introduction
  • Rise of modern new religious movements
  • New Age spirituality
  • Search for personal fulfilment – New Age as a source of personal fulfilment
  • Seeking ethical guidelines – New Age as a source of ethical guidance
  • Seeking to understand one’s place in society – New Age as a source of building relationships
  • Growth in new religious expressions – materialism
  • Rise of other new religious movements – Hare Krishna; Happy Science movement; Pastafarianism (Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster); Deep Ecology; Ecospirituality; Falun Gong; Dudeism
  • Religious worldviews
 Part 5: Non-Religious Worldviews
 
  • Introduction
  • Agnosticism
  • Atheism – practical atheists; pseudo-atheists; absolute atheists
  • Humanism – early forms; rationalist humanism; scientific humanism; contemporary humanism
  • Examples of non-religious worldviews – Adolf Hitler’s worldview; Albert Einstein’s worldview; Fred Hollow’s worldview
  • Importance of a person’s worldview
  • Religious and non-religious worldviews – types of worldviews
  • Humanism – the transcendent; the human person; the social responsibility
  • Christianity – the transcendent; the human person; the social responsibility
Unit 64Cosmic Human Origins
 Part 1: Understanding Genesis
 
  • Darwin argued that all living things originated from a common ancestor, that species gradually change over time, and that as these species change they give rise to new species by means of natural selection.
  • During the nineteenth century, there was a range of reactions among Catholic theologians and scientists to Darwin’s theory.
  • The Church adopted a neutral stand on evolution and natural selection, which was finally lifted in 1950 with the publication of Pope Pius XII’s encyclical, Humani Generis, which expressly recognised Darwin’s ‘doctrine’ as a valid hypothesis.
  • The Catholic Church acknowledges that the Big Bang theory and the unfolding of creation through the process of evolution are valid scientific theories, but insists that the beginning of the universe and the unfolding of creation over time follow God’s divine plan, and that God’s creative activity is fulfilled with the coming of Jesus.
  • According to Genesis, God initiated creation – the Big Bang – through His Word and according to His unique design, lovingly guiding the process through the mechanism of evolution as creation unfolded.
  • The Catholic Church does not deny the possibility that the human body evolved from pre-existing creatures, but insists that, starting with Adam and Eve, God directly creates and infuses a unique soul to every human being.
 Part 2: Genesis in Context
 
  • The redactor of the first nine chapters of Genesis and his audience were profoundly influenced by the defeat of Judah by enemy forces and their subsequent exile in Babylon.
  • Scholars have identified four sources of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. These sources are called J, E, D and P.
  • The first eleven chapters of Genesis are attributed to the P and J sources.
  • Collectively, the two accounts of creation narrated in Genesis constitute a pair of doublets, separated by time and tradition, and therefore, there are significant differences between the two narratives.
  • The redactor retained both accounts of creation, placing them one after the other, with the older version placed after the younger one, to paint a theological picture.
 Part 3: Genesis 1 and Enuma Elish
 
  • Any attempt to view Genesis 1-9 as a historical or scientific account of cosmic and human origins and the great flood is not only mistaken, but is altogether anachronistic.
  • The first creation story in Genesis resembles Enuma Elish in several ways.
  • In the first creation story, the ‘six generations of gods’ of Enuma Elish are de-mythologised into ‘six days’, and God creates through language, not violence.
  • To the ancient peoples who first heard the Genesis story, the biblical account would have been subversive, because the story claims that the God of Israel is far superior to the pantheon of gods among Israel’s pagan neighbours.
  • Genesis 1 reflects an ancient worldview.
 Part 4: Genesis 2 and Atrahasis Part One
 
  • A comparison of Genesis 2 and part one of the Epic of Atrahasis reveals that the biblical text reveals profound and subversive theological truths.
  • Genesis 2 cannot seriously be interpreted as a scientific narrative, because it is an ancient text.
 Part 5: Genesis 3-9 and Atrahasis
 
  • Genesis 3-9 follows an overall pattern that is similar to the Epic of Atrahasis.
  • The redactor of Genesis 3-9 places Israel’s struggle with her sinfulness and consequent punishment – exile in Babylon – in primordial time, beginning with Adam and concluding with Noah.
  • Genesis 3-9 is about Israel’s identity as a nation in a hostile world and her sinful relation to God, which is punished by exile.
  • Adam and Eve are the first two human beings in a spiritual sense – the first beings into whom God infused a soul, thereby conforming them to His own image and likeness.
 Part 6: Paul’s Theology of Adam
 
  • Paul seeks to explain the universal and self-evident problem of sin and death and the historical event of the death and resurrection of Christ in the light his encounter with the risen Jesus.
  • For Paul, the death and resurrection of Christ is the fulfilment of the hope of deliverance for which the ancient Israelites had longed for, but it exceeds that hope, because God’s gift of redemption has been extended to all humanity.

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